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Thread: About Rafiq Al-Hariri

  1. #1
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    About Rafiq Al-Hariri

    Rafik Baha ad-Din Hariri.(November 1, 1944 – February 14, 2005), a self-made billionaire and business tycoon, was the Prime Minister of Lebanon from 1992 to 1998 and again from 2000 until his resignation on 20 October 2004. He headed five cabinets during his tenure. Hariri played a leading role in the reconstruction of Beirut.

    Hariri was assassinated on 14 February 2005 when explosives equivalent to around 1000 kg of TNT were detonated as his motorcade drove past the St. George Hotel in the Lebanese capital, Beirut.


    The investigation into his assassination is still ongoing and it is conducted under the supervision of the UN and led by the independent investigator Serge Brammertz. It has been widely speculated that the Syrian government and its allies in Lebanon are somehow linked to the assassination. The latest progress report by Brammertz has indicated that DNA evidence collected from the crime scene strongly suggests that the assassination might be the act of a young male suicide bomber.

    Syria had extensive military and intelligence influence in Lebanon at the time of Hariri's murder, but Damascus has claimed repeatedly it had no knowledge of the bombing. A United Nations report sponsored by the US and UK found converging evidence of Syrian and Lebanese involvment in this attack. The UN Security Council voted unanimously to demand full Syrian cooperation with UN investigators in the matter, and Serge Brammertz's last two reports praised Syria's full co-operation.

    With the help of the Syrian Regime, Hariri returned to Lebanon in 1992 as prime minister. He put the country back on the financial map through the issuing of Eurobonds and won plaudits from the World Bank for his plan to borrow reconstruction money as the country's debt grew to become the largest per capita in the world.

    Hariri served as Prime Minister of Lebanon from 1992 to 1998, then again from 2000 until late 2004 operating under the wishes of the Syrian government. However, amid the political crisis brought on by the extension of President Emile Lahoud's term, Hariri resigned as Prime Minister, saying: "I have... submitted the resignation of the government, and I have declared that I will not be a candidate to head the (next) government."

    Hariri's contributions were numerous. Among the most notable is the fact that he educated 30,000 Lebanese students inside and outside of Lebanon, and spent millions of dollars of his own personal money to redefine the face of social hierarchies in Lebanon.

    He donated a great deal of money to charity, and invested in Lebanon when few others were willing to risk doing so. Like all prime ministers since the end of the French mandate in 1943, he was a Sunni Muslim. He worked towards unity of the different religious and ethnic groups and rebuilding.

    His economic record was mixed: his ambitious borrow-and-build schemes resulted in massive public debt and budget deficits, which pushed up interest rates and hampered economic growth. He was accused of ignoring the poor as a matter of public policy, despite his long personal record of funding charitable causes.

    He was also accused of using and abusing his political position to benefit his family's fortunes, and the fortunes of his allies and cronies. Harriri was also criticized of turning a blind eye to corruption committed by his allies, and only punishing his political rivals.

    During a BBC interview in 2001,Harīrī was asked by Tim Sebastian why he refused to hand over members of Hezbollah that were accused by America of being terrorists. He responded that Hezballah were the ones protecting Lebanon against the Israeli occupation and called for implementation of passed United Nations resolutions against Israel.

    He was further accused of making the American coalition in the War on Terrorism worthless and asked if he was ready for the consequences of his refusal, reminding him that George W. Bush had said : "Either you are with us, or you are with the terrorists".He replied that he had hoped that there would be no consequences, but would deal with them if they arrive. Hariri further said that he opposed the killing of all humans Israeli, Palestinian, Syrian or Lebanese and believed in dialogue as a solution.

    He further went on to say that Syria will have to stay in Lebanon for protection of Lebanon until they are no longer needed and Lebanon asks them to leave.

    On June 22, 2005, Beirut International Airport was renamed Rafic Hariri International Airport in honor of Rafīq Harīrī. Israel bombed the airport in the 2006 Lebanon War.





  2. #2
    Senior Member Rasputin's Avatar
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    UN Investigation

    Rue Minet al Hosn where Rafik Hariri was assassinated

    Looking southeast across the explosion siteHariri and others in the anti-Syrian opposition had questioned the plan to extend the term of Lebanese President Emile Lahoud, emboldened by popular anger and civic action now being called Lebanon's "Cedar Revolution". Lebanese Druze leader Walid Jumblatt, a recent recruit of the anti-Syrian opposition, said in the wake of the assassination that in August 2004 Syrian President Bashar al-Assad threatened Hariri, saying "Lahoud is me. ... If you and Chirac want me out of Lebanon, I will break Lebanon."

    He was quoted as saying "I heard him telling us those words." The United States, the EU and the UN have stopped short of any accusations, choosing instead to demand a Syrian pullout from Lebanon and an open and international investigation of the Assassination. Jumblatt's comments are not without controversy; the BBC describes him as "being seen by many as the country's political weathervane" - consistently changing allegiances to emerge on the winning side of the issues du jour through the turmoil of the 1975-90 civil war and its troubled aftermath.He was a supporter of Syria after the war but switched sides after the death of former Syrian president Hafez al-Assad in 2000.

    His account is quoted, but not confirmed, in the UN's FitzGerald Report. The report stops short of directly accusing Damascus or any other party, saying that only a further thorough international inquest can identify the culprit. Lara Marlow, an Irish journalist also said that Hariri told her that he received threats.The Lebanese government has agreed to this inquiry, though calling for the full participation, not supremacy, of its own agencies and the respect of Lebanese sovereignty.

    According to these testimonies, Mr. Hariri reminded Mr. Assad of his pledge not to seek an extension for Mr. Lahoud’s term, and Mr. Assad replied that there was a policy shift and that the decision was already taken. He added that Mr. Lahoud should be viewed as his personal representative in Lebanon and that “opposing him is tantamount to opposing Assad himself”.

    He then added that he (Mr. Assad) “would rather break Lebanon over the heads of [Mr.] Hariri and [Druze leader] Walid Jumblatt than see his word in Lebanon broken”. Irish journalist Lara Marlowe with whom Hariri talked reported similar allegations. According to the testimonies, Mr. Assad then threatened both Mr. Hariri and Mr. Jumblatt with physical harm if they opposed the extension for Mr. Lahoud. The meeting reportedly lasted for ten minutes, and was the last time Mr. Hariri met with Mr. Assad.

    After that meeting, Mr. Hariri told his supporters that they had no other option but to support the extension for Mr. Lahoud. The Mission has also received accounts of further threats made to Mr. Hariri by security officials in case he abstained from voting in favor of the extension or “even thought of leaving the country”.

    — "Report of the Fact-Finding Mission to Lebanon inquiring into the causes, circumstances and consequences of the assassination of former Prime Minister Rafik Hariri, 25 February – 24 March 2005" (the Fitzgerald Report)
    Wikisource has original text related to this article:

    United Nations Security Council Resolution 1595The United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 1595 to send an investigative team to look into Hariri's assassination. This team was headed by German judge Detlev Mehlis and presented its initial report to the Security Council on 20 October 2005. The Mehlis Report implicated Syrian and Lebanese officials,with special focus on Syria's military intelligence chief, Assef Shawkat and Syrian President Bashar al-Assad's brother-in-law.

    United States President George W. Bush has called for a special meeting of the UN to be convened to discuss international response "as quickly as possible to deal with this very serious matter.". Detlev Mehlis has asked for more time to investigate all leads. Lebanese politicians have asked to extend the investigative team's duration and charter, to include assassinations of other prominent anti-Syrian Lebanese, such as Gebran Tueni. A second report, submitted on 10 December 2005, upholds the conclusions from the first report. On 11 January 2006, Mehlis was replaced by the Belgian Serge Brammertz.

    On 30 December 2005, former Syrian vice-president Abdul Halim Khaddam in a televised interview implicated Assad in the assassination and said that Assad personally threatened Hariri in the months before his death.This interview has caused Syrian MPs to demand treason charges against Khaddam.It should be noted that Mr. Khaddam has extensive business interests with the Harriri family, so many expect him to be loyal to Harriri over the Syrian government.In addition, his behavior is curious, as he made millions, if not more, due to corruption in Syria.




  3. #3
    Senior Member Rasputin's Avatar
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    Increasingly, Hariri's younger son Saad Hariri is taking his father's place on the Lebanese political scene. Like his father, he is using the considerable family fortune to support the building of his country.

    Hariri was well regarded among international leaders, counting French President Jacques Chirac as a close friend, and enjoying the record of being the political figure most often received by the French President. Chirac was one of the first foreign dignitaries to offer condolences to Hariri's widow in person at her home in Beirut.

    On Sept. 6th 2006, an assassination attempt was made on Lt. Col. Samir Shehade, deputy head of the intelligence department in Lebanon's national police force, according to Jordan Times. A remote-controlled roadside bomb was used that killed four other people travelling in his two-vehicle convoy, including a stand–in impersonating Mr. Shehade. Lt. Col. Samir Shehade, sitting in the second car, was wounded but was in a stable condition. Acting Interior Minister Ahmed Fatfat said Shehade had played a key role into a Lebanese probe into Hariri's killing, and had also supervised other investigations into a series of explosions that killed journalists and politicians in Beirut over the last 18 months. Security officials said Shehade was involved in the interrogation of several witnesses, including Syrian intelligence operative Husam Taher Husam, during the probe into Hariri's slaying. Shehade was also involved in the August 2005 arrests of four pro-Syrian Lebanese generals who were detained on suspicion of involvement in Hariri's assassination.




  4. #4
    Senior Member Rasputin's Avatar
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    هیات تحقیق 'مظنونان قتل حریری را شناسایی کرده است'


    قتل حریری منجر به تظاهرات های گسترده ای شد که سوریه را وادار به خروج از لبنان کرد
    یک هیات سازمان ملل که درباره قتل رفیق حریری، نخست وزیر سابق لبنان، تحقیق می کند می گوید شماری از افراد دخیل در حادثه را شناسایی کرده است.
    سرگی برامرتز، سرپرست گروه تحقیق، در تازه ترین گزارش خود گفت او اکنون نام کسانی که مسئول خریداری اتومبیلی بودند که در ترور 2005 بیروت به کار گرفته شد را می داند.

    وی همچنین گفت کسانی که کارت های تلفن همراه را برای نظارت بر حرکات رفیق حریری خریداری کرده بودند، در ماجرا نقش داشته اند اما از آنها نام نبرد.

    سوریه ادعاهای قبلی گروه تحقیق درباره نقش سازمان های اطلاعاتی اش در قتل حریری را رد کرده است.

    این سند هشتمین گزارشی است که آقای برامرتز، دادستان بلژیکی، تسلیم شورای امنیت سازمان ملل می کند.

    این گزارش می گوید که اطلاعات قوی به شناسایی "ابعاد مهم و افرادی با منافع مشترک در چندین جبهه از تحقیقات" کمک کرده است.

    قتل سیاسی

    براساس این گزارش اتومبیلی که تصور می شود یک بمبگذار انتحاری بمب عظیمی را در آن منفجر کرد و باعث قتل آقای حریری و 22 نفر دیگر شد در ژاپن سرقت شده و سپس به امارات متحده عربی حمل شده بود.

    آقای برامرتز گفت تیم سازمان ملل "اخیرا اطلاعاتی درباره فروش این اتومبیل به افرادی که احتمالا درگیر عملیات نهایی در آماده سازی اتومبیل برای حمله بودند به دست آورده است."

    محققان سازمان ملل قبلا قتل رفیق حریری را سیاسی توصیف کرده اند اما آقای برامرتز برخلاف دتلف مهلیس، سلف خود، مقام های سوریه را به دخالت در ماجرا متهم نکرده است.

    آقای حریری از منتقدان برجسته سوریه بود و از یک قطعنامه سال 2004 سازمان ملل که خواستار خروج سوریه و سایر نیروهای خارجی از لبنان می شد حمایت می کرد.

    دتلف مهلیس سرپرست اول هیات تحقیق سازمان ملل انگشت اتهام را به سوی مقام های سوریه و نیروهای امنیتی لبنان نشانه رفت اما دمشق دخالت در مرگ حریری را رد کرد.

    چهار ژنرال لبنانی که طرفدار سوریه هستند برای 20 ماه تحت بازداشت بوده اند چرا که به ایفای نقش در قتل حریری متهم هستند.

    در سال 2005، سوریه نیروهای نظامی اش را پس از حضوری 29 ساله از لبنان خارج کرد که ناشی از فشارهای مردم لبنان و جامعه بین المللی بود.






  5. #5
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    Lebanon in confrontation with Syria,Iran -Hariri

    The leader of Lebanon's pro-Western majority in parliament said on Thursday the country was in direct confrontation with Syria and Iran, which back the Hezbollah opposition group in its conflict with the Beirut government.

    Saad al-Hariri, whose coalition is supported by the United States, said Syria and Iran and "their local tools" were seeking to "impose a terror, security and political siege" on Lebanon.

    "If our fate is confrontation, then we are for it," he said.

    The speech, including rare criticism of Iran, reflected increased tension between the coalition and the opposition, which appeared far from resolving Lebanon's worst political conflict since the 1975-90 civil war.

    The crisis has deepened divisions between followers of rival sectarian leaders, led to the worst street violence since the civil war, paralysed government and left Lebanon without a president.

    Hariri said Lebanon faced dangers which "put the country in direct, open confrontation with the Syrian-Iranian project" and he called supporters to a rally on Thursday next week to mark the third anniversary of his father's assassination.

    Former Prime Minister Rafik al-Hariri was killed by a truck bomb on Feb. 14, 2005. Hariri and his allies have accused Syria of the killing and subsequent assassinations of anti-Syrian figures. Damascus denies the allegations.



    "NO PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS"

    The governing coalition accuses the opposition of seeking to restore Syrian influence brought to an end by international pressure after the Hariri assassination. Syria was forced to end its 29-year military presence in Lebanon.

    Lebanon has been without a president since November when the term of close Syria ally Emile Lahoud ended. Members of parliament have been called to a presidential election in parliament on Monday.

    However, the vote appeared to be heading for a 14th delay in the absence of a deal between the sides.

    "There are no presidential elections on Monday. The conditions are not at all ripe," said former President Amin Gemayel, one of the governing coalition's main Christian leaders.

    The rivals have agreed on army chief General Michel Suleiman as the candidate for the presidency. The vote has been held up by a dispute over the make-up of a new government.

    Only Parliament Speaker Nabih Berri, a leading opposition figure, can officially postpone the election.

    Arab League Secretary-General Amr Moussa arrived in Beirut on Thursday to resume efforts to mediate a deal under an Arab states' initiative. His previous missions have failed to produce a breakthrough.

    Tension has been aggravated since Moussa's last visit by the killing of seven activists affiliated to the Shi'ite Muslim opposition groups Hezbollah and Amal. Three officers and eight soldiers have been arrested over the Jan. 27 killings.

    Political analysts say the shootings have thrown into doubt Suleiman's candidacy for the presidency, further complicating the search for an to a crisis that erupted in November 2006 when opposition ministers quit the government.

    The opposition wants veto power in the cabinet or an equal three-way split of seats with the governing coalition and the president. The coalition has rejected the demands.




  6. #6
    Senior Member Rasputin's Avatar
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    چهار ژنرال مظنون پرونده ترور حریری آزاد شدند

    همسر یکی از ژنرال ها با شنیدن خبر آزادی به ابراز خوشحالی می پردازد

    دادگاه رسیدگی کننده به پرونده ترور رفیق حریری، نخست وزیر پیشین لبنان دستور آزادی چهار ژنرال مظنون به دست داشتن در این ترور را صادر کرده است.

    این افراد طی چهار سال گذشته بدون آن که رسما تفهیم اتهام شوند، در لبنان در زندان به سر می بردند. آنها اخیرا به بازداشتگاه تحت اداره سازمان ملل منتقل شده بودند.

    ژنرال جمیل سید، رئیس سابق امنیت عمومی، ژنرال علی حاج، رئیس سابق پلیس، ژنرال ریموند آذر، رئیس پیشین اطلاعات نظامی و مصطفی حمدان،فرمانده گارد جمهوری متهم به طرح و برنامه ریزی قتل و اعمال تروریستی بودند که هم اکنون آزاد شده اند.

    به دنبال انتشار این خبر، حامیان این ژنرال ها در کوچه و خیابان ها به شلیک تیر هوایی پرداختند.

    دادگاه رسیدگی کننده به این پرونده، توسط سازمان ملل برای محاکمه عوامل ترور رفیق حریری که در سال ۲۰۰۵ در بیروت کشته شد، تشکیل شده است.

    به همراه رفیق حریری، بیست و دو نفر دیگر هم کشته شدند.

    چهار ژنرالی که در بازداشت به سر می بردند از هواداران سوریه در لبنان به شمار می رفتند و در زمان ترور حریری، سمت های مهمی در دستگاه های امنیتی و اطلاعاتی لبنان داشتند.

    دانیل فرانزن، قاضی بلژیکی گفت که شواهد و مدارک کافی برای نگه داشتن این افراد در بازداشت وجود ندارد.

    تحلیلگران می گویند آزادی این افراد پیش از انتخابات پارلمانی ماه ژوئن، می تواند به تقویت جریان مخالف طرفدار سوریه منجر شود.

    به رغم صدور حکم آزادی برای این افراد، هنوز این احتمال وجود دارد که آنها تحت تعقیب قرار گیرند.

    در ماه فوریه نیز سه مظنون پرونده ترور رفیق حریری آزاد شدند.یکی از این سه مظنون، اهل سوریه و دو نفر دیگر لبنانی بودند.

    ترور رفیق حریری در ماه فوریه سال ۲۰۰۵ به تظاهراتی علیه ادامه حضور سوریه در لبنان منجر شد و سرانجام دولت سوریه را وادار کرد تا پس از حدود سی سال حضور نظامی در لبنان، واحدهای ارتش و تشکیلات اطلاعاتی خود را از این کشور خارج کند.





  7. #7
    Senior Member Rasputin's Avatar
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    در تحقیقات مربوط به پرونده*ی قتل رفیق حریری، نخست*وزیر فقید لبنان، تحول غیرمنتظره*ای رخ داده است: سرنخ*های تازه و اطلاعات بدست آمده نشان می*دهند که انفجار منجر به قتل حریری، کار حزب*الله لبنان بوده است.

    دادگاه بین*المللی ویژه قتل رفیق حریری که از اول ماه مارس گذشته رسیدگی به جریان قتل نخست*وزیر سابق لبنان را در لاهه آغاز کرده، به سرنخ*های تازه*ای درباره*ی مجریان قتل حریری رسیده است. این سرنخ*ها راه به حزب*الله لبنان، گروه مورد حمایت حکومت ایران می*برد.

    براساس دانسته*های هفته*نامه*ی آلمانی "اشپیگل"، اطلاعاتی وجود دارد که انفجار منجر به قتل حریری در سال ۲۰۰۵، کار سوریه نبود، بلکه نیروهای ویژه*ی گروه حزب*الله لبنان این عملیات را طراحی و اجرا کرده*اند.

    قتل حریری

    رفیق حریری در ۱۴ فوریه ۲۰۰۵ (۲۶ بهمن ۱۳۸۳) در اثر انفجار بمبی به قتل رسید. بمب در خودرویی در مقابل هتل "سنت جورج" در غرب بیروت کارگذاری شده بود و به هنگام عبور کاروان خودروهای حامل رفیق حریری منفجر شد. در این حادثه ۲۲ نفر، از جمله رفیق حریری و محافظان وی به قتل رسیدند.

    Bildunterschrift: Großansicht des Bildes mit der Bildunterschrift: محل انفجار بمب منجر به قتل حریری در غرب بیروت دادگاه بین*المللی ویژه که از سوی سازمان ملل برای تحقیق درباره این قتل تشکیل شد، در پایان سال ۲۰۰۵ به این نتیجه رسید که نیروهای امنیتی سوریه و برخی مقام*های ارشد لبنانی در این قتل دست دارند. ۴ افسر لبنانی به عنوان متهم این پرونده بازداشت شدند، اما مدرکی علیه این چهار نفر پیدا نشد و دادگاه ویژه در ماه آوریل گذشته (۲۰۰۹) هر چهار نفر را آزاد کرد.

    این چهار افسر لبنانی که از ماه اوت ۲۰۰۵ در بازداشت بسر می*بردند، عبارت بودند از: مصطفی حمدان، فرمانده سابق گارد ریاست جمهوری لبنان، جمیل سید، رئیس سابق بخش داخلی سازمان امنیت لبنان، علی حاج، فرمانده سابق اداره امنیت داخلی و ریموند آذر، رئیس سابق اطلاعات ارتش لبنان.

    رمزگشایی مدیون فن*آوری

    اما اکنون پرونده*ی قتل نخست*وزیر لبنان در برابر تحول تازه*ای قرار گرفته است. هفته*نامه*ی آلمانی "اشپیگل" که اطلاعات خود را از محافل نزدیک به دادگاه بین*المللی ویژه قتل حریری در لاهه به دست آورده، می*نویسد: دانیل بلمار، دادستان کانادایی و قاضی دادگاه ویژه قتل حریری، حدود یک ماه است به این اطلاعات دست یافته، اما آن*ها را مخفی نگاه داشته است. در مورد این*که چرا اطلاعات تازه مخفی نگاه داشته شده*اند، گما*نه*زنی*های متفاوتی وجود دارد. احتمال داده می*شود، مقام*های سازمان ملل نگران تشدید تنش در لبنان، در آستانه*ی انتخابات پارلمانی در پی افشای اطلاعات جدید هستند.

    به نوشته*ی هفته*نامه اشپیگل، رمزگشایی در پروند*ه*ی قتل رفیق حریری مدیون فن*آوری و شم اطلاعاتی است. اکنون یک واحد ویژه از نیروهای امنیتی لبنان قصد دارد شماره تلفن*های همراهی را استخراج کند که در روز قتل حریری و یک روز پیش از آن، در محدوده*ی محل انفجار فعال بوده و با یکدیگر پیام رد و بدل کرده*اند.

    اطلاعات تازه درباره*ی ماجرای قتل رفیق حریری، درست هنگامی افشا می*شود که لبنان در آستانه*ی انتخابات پارلمانی حساسی قرار دارد؛ انتخاباتی که پیش*بینی* می*شود بلوک منتسب به حزب*الله برنده*ی آن باشد. این گروه مورد حمایت همه*جانبه*ی حکومت ایران است. انتخابات لبنان ۷ ژوئن (۱۷ خرداد) برگزار خواهد شد.





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