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Thread: Fashion

  1. #26
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    How to Buy Ways to Counter Hair Loss

    The loss of one's hair can be a grievous blow to self-image and confidence. Medications, illness, heredity, pregnancy, menopause, changing hormone levels and stress can all contribute to hair loss. Other culprits are chemotherapy, hereditary baldness or alopecia.


    Steps:
    1. Consult your doctor, dermatologist or an endocrinologist to eliminate medical causes such as thyroid issues or alopecia. Rule out any dietary contributors by making sure you're getting all the vitamins, protein and calories you need.

    2. Apply over-the-counter minoxidil (Rogaine) to thinning or balding patches twice a day. The exact way this medicine works is not known, but it is thought to cause dilation of the blood vessels in the scalp. If you stop treatment once you've started, hair loss will resume within a few months.

    3. Try prescription-only Propecia or Proscar, which have been found to work rather well for women. The active ingredient finasteride blocks the formation of active testosterone and allows those hairs predisposed to inactivity to become active again and make new hairs. The two brands have different dosages of finasteride.

    4. Explore hair-replacement surgery options. Mini- or micrografting may offer the most natural results. A strip of scalp with hair is divided into a few hundred tiny grafts with just a few strands apiece, then inserted into minuscule slits in the scalp. Skilled surgeons ensure all hair is growing in the same direction. Make sure to see live examples of the surgeon's work before proceeding.

    5. Discuss treatment options with your doctor for alopecia. While very little is known about the disorder, there is evidence of a genetic component as well as a link to autoimmune problems. Depending on the variety (areata: spots on the head; totalis: the entire head; or universalis: all body hair), there's a good chance that cortisone injections on the head and eyebrows will spur hair growth. Injections can be painful but may offer a huge morale boost for people who would do just about anything to look the way they used to.


    Overall Tips:
    Talking to other people who've lost their hair can be enormously helpful, as are supportive friends and family. Contact the National Alopecia Areata Foundation at alopeciaareata.com for information and to subscribe to their newsletter.


    Overall Warnings:
    Be aware that 5 percent minoxidil is not recommended for use by women, due to the potential for greater drug penetration. Women using this percentage in clinical trials were inclined to grow hair in areas where minoxidil was not applied.




  2. #27
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    Top Iranian Fashion Models

    Although the age of Supermodels is long gone, Iranian women are still playing a big role in the world of fashion and modelling. Persian women all over the world have been competing in Miss World contests and many have won over the last few years. From TV shows to realty series, we are seeing more and more Iranian women using the classic Persian features to win the hearts of judges and audiences all over the world. One of the innovators in modelling still remains Yasmin Le Bon. Leading the way is also male supermodel Cameron Alborzian. Other new comers include Shermine Sharivar (Miss Germany 2004), Nadia Bjorlin (Days of Our Lives on left), Sarah Racey-Tabrizi (America's Top Model Reality show), and Nazanin Afshin-Jam (Miss World Canada 2003).




  3. #28
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    How to Accessorize Formal Evening Wear

    Accessories embellish any outfit, and a formal evening is the perfect occasion to go to town. From amber to zircon, hats to hose, scarves and shawls to shoes and slip-ons, consider the occasion and the season.


    Overview

    Steps:

    1. Accessorize one (or all) of your most visible areas: neck, wrists and shoulders.

    2. Think seriously about costume jewelry and faux gems; they are relatively inexpensive and readily accessible at department stores and secondhand boutiques.

    3. Evaluate your formal outfit carefully: Is it simple and elegant or fancy and froufrou? (Remember that a hot pink feather boa will be a showstopper at a ball but will merely attract stares at a college graduation.)

    4. Ponder the notion that less is usually more ... and almost always suffices.


    Tips:

    Analyze your bracelet, earrings, necklace, scarf, shoes, stockings and evening bag. Does everything work together?

    Consider wearing a limited number of fine (or glamorous) items, not everything you own.


    Jewelry

    Steps:

    1. Choose a matching bracelet and necklace.

    2. Get real, cultured or faux pearls and wear them anywhere.

    3. Wear a tennis bracelet - such as a single strand of diamonds - for a dramatic look. Or consider an evening watch instead of a bracelet.

    4. Try elegant pearl or diamond studs for your ears. Vintage clip-ons or exotic dangling earrings could also work.

    5. Adorn your hair with sparkling clips, tortoiseshell barrettes, a diamond tiara or even a fresh gardenia.

    6. Find a ring that complements your other jewelry.


    Tips:

    Be sure a matching set is all real or all faux, not some of each.

    Consider the company if you want to wear an ankle bracelet.

    Treat yourself to a manicure, especially if you're sporting a ring.


    Shoes, Shawls and Silk Purses

    Steps:

    1. Put on your fancy shoes, no matter how elegant or frivolous, but be sure they are comfortable enough to dance the night away.

    2. Choose stockings in a neutral palette. If you want hose with a design, make it subtle.

    3. Go with gloves to the opera, a debutante ball or the Ascot races.

    4. Toss a shawl around your shoulders; make sure it goes with your outfit in terms of color and texture.

    5. Try a lace mantilla or a vintage smoking jacket for "a look" or for warmth.

    6. Carry an evening purse or a beaded bag large enough to hold business cards, keys, cash and lip gloss.




  4. #29
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    An exhibition of 1,500 selected photographs from Fashion Planet's visit to Bangkok Fashion City.

    THAILAND


    OK, so what's all the noise about Bangkok? As we settle into our flight across the Pacific, I start flipping through the latest copy of The Economist and happen on the last page: Emerging-market indicators. It doesn't take an economist to see that Thailand has half the foreign reserves of Russia. You can also see that Thailand is the number two country in the world for the percentage change up on their leading indicators for financial markets. At least this was the case February 14th. Maybe this Bangkok Fashion City has potential.





  5. #30
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    Donna Karan

    Donna Faske (born October 2, 1948 in Forest Hills, New York), better known as Donna Karan, is an American fashion designer.

    Karan, nicknamed The Queen Of Seventh Avenue, began working for Liz Claiborne at a very young age. In 1974, she began working with Anne Klein, with whom she lasted as one of her top designers for ten years. In 1984, she first showed her own collection. She had her first baby that year, but she kept on working as a designer throughout her maternity leave period. Karan won the Coty Award in 1977 and once again in 1981. She was inducted into the Coty Hall Of Fame in 1984.

    She currently owns a company named Donna Karan New York , which is involved in the marketing, production and design of clothes.

    As the British writer Tony Barrell has pointed out (London Sunday Times, October 9, 2005), Karan was born on exactly the same day as the former British football star Trevor Brooking.





  6. #31
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    Fashion design

    Fashion design is the applied art dedicated to the design of clothing and lifestyle accessories.

    The first fashion designer who was not merely a dressmaker was Charles Frederick Worth (1826-1895). Before the former draper set up his maison couture (fashion house) in Paris, clothing design and creation was handled by largely anonymous seamstresses, and high fashion descended from styles worn at royal courts. Worth's success was such that he was able to dictate to his customers what they should wear, instead of following their lead as earlier dressmakers had done. With his unprecedented success, his customers could attach a name and a face to his designs once they learned that they were from the House of Worth, thus starting the tradition of having the designer of a house be not only the creative head but the symbol of the brand as well. (Foreshadowing another contemporary trend, the House of Worth remained in business long after its founder's death in 1895, continuing until Worth's great-grandson closed the house in 1952.)

    Worth's former apprentice Paul Poiret opened his own fashion house in 1904, melding the styles of Art Nouveau and aestheic dress with Paris fashion. His early Art Deco creations signalled the demise of the corset from female fashion.

    Following in Worth's and Poiret's footsteps were: Patou, Vionnet, Fortuny, Lanvin, Chanel, Mainbocher, Schiaparelli, Balenciaga, and Dior. Hand in hand with clothing, haute couture accessories evolved internationally with such names as Guccio Gucci, Thierry Hermès, Judith Leiber, and others.




  7. #32
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    The early twentieth century

    Throughout the 1920s and '30s, all high fashion originated in Paris. American and British fashion magazines sent editors to the Paris fashion shows. Department stores sent buyers to the Paris shows, where they purchased garments to copy (and openly stole the style lines and trim details of others). Both made-to-measure salons and ready-to-wear departments featured the latest Paris trends, adapted to the stores' assumptions about the lifestyles and pocket books of American customers.

    Designer Elizabeth Hawes, in her memoir Fashion is Spinach 1938 describes Paris fashion of this period from the inside, when she worked in Paris for both fashion magazines and department stores.




  8. #33
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    Modern fashion design and designers

    Modern fashion design is roughly divided into two categories, haute couture, and ready-to-wear. A designer's haute-couture collection is meant exclusively for private customers and is custom sized, cut and sewn. To qualify as an official "haute couture" house, a designer or company must belong to the Syndical Chamber for Haute Couture, a Paris-based body of designers governed by the French Department of Industry that includes American, Italian, Japanese, and other designers as well. A haute couture house must show collections twice yearly with at least 35 separate outfits in each show. It is often shown on the catwalk and in private salons.

    Ready-to-wear collections are not custom made. They are standard sized which makes them more suitable for larger productions. Ready-to-wear collections can also be divided into designers/createur collections and Confection collections. Designer/createur collections have a high quality, a superb finish and a unique cut and design. These collections are the most trendsetting compared to Haute Couture and Confection. Designer/createurs ready to wear collections contain often concept items that represent a certain philosophy or theory. These items are not so much created for sales but just to make a statement. The designer's ready-to-wear collection is also presented on the international catwalks by people who do fashion modeling.

    Confection collections are the ones we see most commonly in our shops. These collections are designed by stylists. The brands that produce these collections aim only for a mass public and are in general not searching for new grammar for the language or a new point of view on/of fashion.

    Although many modern fashion designers work in a "traditional" way -- making clothes that are fancy and expensive, but still based on standard/traditional construction and design concepts -- some designers have broken these "rules" over the years. These include some now-deceased designers such as Elsa Schiaparelli, who worked in the thirties, forties, and fifties; Japanese designers Yohji Yamamoto, Comme des Garcons, and Junya Watanabe from the early eighties to the present; and designers from the mid-nineties onward. An example of a modern-day rule-breaker is Martin Margiela. These designers approach clothing, Fashion and lifestyle from new angles and explore also the boundaries of Fashion itself in order to create new concepts and views for fashion design. Their collections are not only restricted to garments (ready to wear as well as couture) and other fashion-related products, but also contain work in other media. The works of this breed of designers can also be placed in a certain Art movement.

    Most fashion designers attend an Academie of fine arts. Fashion design courses are considered applied arts just like graphic design and interior design.

    The types of fashion designer -- stylist versus designer -- are often confused. A stylist inspires his/her designs on existing things, trends and designers collections. A designer starts from scratch; he/she develops a unique concept and translates this into garment collections, other lifestyle related products or a statement in various other types of media. Some designers approach their work just as a fine arts painter or sculptor.

    Inspiration for fashion designers comes from a wide range of things and cannot be pinpointed exactly. However, just like all artists, they tend to keep an eye on things going on world-wide to inspire themselves towards making their future clothes lines.

    Most fashion designers are well trained pattern makers and modeleurs. A typical design team is made up of one or more: designer(s), pattern maker(s) /modeleur(s), sample maker(s), buyer(s) and salesman (men). For presentations and catwalk shows the help of hair dressers, make-up artists, photographers, modeling agencies, the model and other support companies/professions is called upon.




  9. #34
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    Pierre Cardin

    Pierre Cardin (politician) was the Canadian Minister of Transport from 1940 to 1942
    Pierre Cardin is a fashion designer. He was born in 1922, near Venice, Italy, to French parents. He moved to Paris in 1945. There he studied architecture and worked with Paquin after the war. Work with Schiaparelli followed until he became head of Christian Dior's tailleure atelier in 1947, but was denied work at Balenciaga. He founded his own house in 1950 and began with haute couture in 1953.

    Cardin was known for his avant-garde style and his space age designs. He prefers geometric shapes and motifs, often ignoring the female form. He advanced into unisex fashions, sometimes experimental, and not always practical. He introduced the "bubble dress" in 1954.

    Cardin was the first couturier to turn to Japan as a high fashion market when he travelled there in 1959.

    In 1959, he was expelled from the Chambre Syndicale for launching a ready-to-wear collection for the Printemps department store as the first couturier in Paris, but was soon reinstated. However, he resigned from the Chambre Syndicale in 1966 and now shows his collections in his own venue, the Espace Cardin (opened 1971) in Paris, formerly the Théâtre des Ambassadeurs, near the American Embassy. The Espace Cardin is also used to promote new artistic talents, like theater ensembles, musicians, etc.

    His fellow designer, Andrè Oliver, who joined him in 1971 and assumed responsibility for the haute couture collections in 1987, died in 1993.

    Cardin was a member of the Chambre Syndicale de la Haute Couture et du Prêt-à-Porter and of the Maison du Haute Couture from 1953 to 1993. Like many other designers today, Cardin decided in 1994 to show his collection only to a small circle of selected clients and journalists.

    He purchased Maxim's restaurants in 1981 and soon opened branches in New York, London, and Beijing (1983). A chain of Maxim's Hotels are now included in the assets. Cardin has also licenced a wide range of food products under that name.

    Cardin owns the ruins of the castle in Lacoste, Vaucluse that was formerly inhabitated by the Marquis de Sade. He has partially renovated the site and regularly organizes theatre festivals there.





  10. #35
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    Coco Chanel

    Gabrielle Bonheur Chanel (August 19, 1883 – January 10, 1971) was a pioneering French couturier whose modernist philosophy, menswear-inspired fashions, and pursuit of expensive simplicity made her arguably the most important figure in the history of 20th-century fashion design.

    Popularly known as Coco Chanel or "Mademoiselle" by her inner circle, she was born in the small city of Saumur, France in 1883, although she asserted she was born in 1893, in Auvergne. Her mother died when Chanel was six, and shortly afterward her father abandoned her and her four siblings; the Chanel children were then placed in the care of relatives and spent some time in an orphanage. After affairs with generous wealthy men – a military officer and later an English industrialist – she was able to open a shop in Paris in 1910 selling ladies' hats, and within a year moved the business to the fashionable Rue Cambon. Her influence on haute couture was such that she was the only person in the field to be named on the List of TIME Magazine's 100 most influential people of the 20th century.

    In 1922 Chanel No. 5 perfume was introduced by Chanel. Pierre Wertheimer became her partner in the perfume business in 1924. Wertheimer owned 70% of the company; Coco Chanel received 10% and her friend Bader 20%. The Wertheimers continue to control the perfume company today.

    The influential Chanel suit, launched in 1923, was an elegant suit comprising a knee-length s***t and trim, boxy jacket, traditionally made of woven wool with black trim and gold buttons and worn with large costume-pearl necklaces. Coco Chanel also popularized the little black dress, whose blank-slate versatility allowed it to be worn for day and evening, depending on how it was accessorized. Although unassuming black dresses existed before Chanel, the ones she designed were considered the haute couture standard. In 1923, she told Harper's Bazaar that "simplicity is the keynote of all true elegance."

    The nickname Coco was evidently acquired at La Rotonde, a cafe frequented by members of a French cavalry regiment and many of the artists who flocked to Paris' Montparnasse section at the turn of the 20th century. It was there that Chanel, then a cabaret singer, performed a song called "Qui qu'a vu Coco," and the name stuck. (Other sources state that her audiences cried "Coco" when they wanted an encore, while further sources state that the song was called "Ko Ko Ri Ko," French for "Cock-a-doodle-do.")

    Chanel was set up in business by a lover, Étienne Balsan, a French textile heir, and her love affairs with the artist Paul Iribe, the Duke of Westminster, Grand Duke Dmitri of Russia, and British sportsman Boy Capel all had a considerable influence on the stylistic evolution of her often male-inspired fashions. She never married. She almost married the Duke of Westminster but declined, noting "There are a lot of duchesses, but only one Coco Chanel."

    For more than 30 years, Gabrielle Chanel made the Hôtel Ritz in Paris her home, even during the Nazi occupation of Paris, during which time she was criticized for taking a German military officer as a lover. She maintained an apartment above her Rue Cambon establishment and also owned Villa La Pausa in the town of Roquebrune on the French Riviera. However, she spent her latter years in Lausanne, Switzerland and is buried there in a tomb surrounded by five stone lions.

    One of her most widely quoted aphorisms is: "Fashion is not simply a matter of clothes. Fashion is in the air, born upon the wind. One intuits it. It is in the sky and on the road."

    Chanel has been portrayed on the Broadway stage by Katharine Hepburn in a musical by Andre Previn and Alan Jay Lerner, and on screen by the French actress Marie-France Pisier.

    The House of Chanel in Paris, under Karl Lagerfeld, remains one of the top design houses today.






  11. #36
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    Gianni Versace

    Gianni Versace (December 2, 1946 – July 15, 1997) was a famous and almost aristocratic Italian fashion designer, as well as the founder and owner of the high-end Versace clothing company.

    Versace was born to a family who owned a tailoring store in the town of Reggio di Calabria, in southern Italy. As a young boy, he learned to design and make his own clothes. Several of his designs were sold at the family store.

    Versace's first career success came in 1972, when he was contracted by a company to create a collection. In 1974, his name was seen on his own designs for the first time when he signed with the Complices trademark. In 1978, he opened his first boutique.

    In 1985, his Instante collection hit the store stands.

    Versace became an internationally famous fashion designer alongside Ralph Lauren, Oscar De La Renta, Carlota Alfaro and Giorgio Armani. He was a personal designer for celebrities such as Courtney Love, Jon Bon Jovi and Elton John, and was particularly known for his innovative designs in leather.

    Versace was awarded the coveted American Fashion Oscar on February 1, 1993.

    In 1992 Gianni Versace moved to Miami Beach, Florida and purchased a home at 1116 Ocean Drive formerly known as the Amsterdam Palace for $2.9 million.

    After receiving city approval to demolish the adjacent Revere Hotel, a two-story, 6,100-foot addition was built, transforming the entire structure into a palatial home that Versace named Casa Casuarina.

    Gianni Versace's initial connection with Miami – South Beach in particular – came when he designed the sensual T-shirt-and-pastel-jacket look for the TV series Miami Vice, a look that exuded a fresh style that would soon sweep the country and set the tone for a decade of wild and reckless living.

    Versace was shot dead on the front steps of his Miami Beach mansion on July 15, 1997. Andrew Cunanan, who was wanted for murdering four other people in a killing spree, became a prime suspect; four of the victims, including Versace, were gay. Cunanan fled and hid from police. Eight days later, he committed suicide in a houseboat on Miami Beach that was under siege by armed police.

    After Versace's death, his sister, Donatella Versace, took over his business and continued usage of the family's trademark bright colors and designs. His lover, Antonio D'Amico, started his own design company.

    Versace is sometimes mentioned in Eminem songs, such as "Fight Music," on D12's first CD, Devil's Night, and "Criminal" from The Marshall Mathers LP.





  12. #37
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    Marc Jacobs

    Marc Jacobs is an American fashion designer, raised in New York. Following his studies at the Parsons School of Design, he became prominent on the fashion scene when he designed a "grunge" collection for Perry Ellis, leading to his immediate dismissal. Jacobs is currently the artistic director for Louis Vuitton, spearheading such collaborations as Stephen Sprouse's graffiti bags and Takashi Murakami's pastel-colored accessories. His own clothing lines, Marc Jacobs and the less expensive Marc By Marc Jacobs, are also extremely popular.

    Marc Jacobs has been known to design under his own free will without following trends. In Spring 2004/2005, when designers were following the "safari theme'", Marc Jacobs made his collection completely lady-like and the catwalk which the models walked on had an archway of 450,000 roses. For his fall collection in 2005, he got some terrible reviews and some fantastic ones. He is set to bring out a watch collection ths year under the name Marc Jacobs. These watches will be classic and timeless features with a slightly vintage feel. His clothes are available in many countries around the world.




  13. #38
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    Donatella Versace

    Donatella Versace, was born May 2, 1955 in the Italian town of Reggio di Calabria. Like her famous brother, Gianni Versace, the founder of the high-end Versace clothing company, she is an affluent, high-end fashion designer. Her current title is Vice-President of the Versace Group and Chief Designer of the fashion line as well as holding a great amount of stock, totaling 20% of the entire stock market assets of Versace. Her brother, Santo, owns 35%.




    The Growing Versace Name

    Donatella is actually credited and known as the figure who began to use notable models and celebrities to broadcast her clothing into the world on the catwalk. Another member of the growing Versace success was Santo Versace S.p. A., Donatella's brother, who is also a fashion designer and the owner of Finanziaria Versace, an upcoming Versace branch. Donatella soon proved to be the public relations giant of the Versace label and spread its name throughout Europe and the United States. Donatella chose to place some of her good friends, Madonna and Demi Moore, in high esteem in the Versace advertising sector, making them and other A-List celebrities the cover and look of Versace, a very business-oriented move. Donatella is also the Creator and Chief Designer of Versace Young, a fashion line for children launched in 1993.

    Heiress to the Throne

    It was in 1997, while watching TV in her bedroom in between study, that she found the familiar face of her uncle, Gianni, on the news stations, he had been shot. Not only was Gianni an icon of the fashion industry, he was the highest figure in the Versace Group, leaving no one to rule the vast network of clothing lines and branches of his company. His Last Will and Testament stated Allegra Versace was to receive all inheritance and titles.

    Allegra Versace, upon her eighteenth birthday, received the inheritance from her beloved uncle, Gianni, the staggering sum of $700 million. Even with extravagant weatlh and success, Allegra stays out of the spotlight, yet still attends the most exclusive parties and clubs of Milan whenever time permits.

    "Only you understand how I express what I feel" --Gianni to Allegra
    She was not only left an enormous wealth and heritage from her uncle, Allegra was given Gianni's villa on Lake Como, Italy and a large townhome in Manhattan's most affluent neighborhood. To this day she stands to inherit the company, as her brother, Daniel, inherited Gianni's vast rare artwork collection. While the Versace Group is not as well off financially as it was in its earlier stages, the Versace Group hopes a new face with new ideas will bring about a positive change.




  14. #39
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    Types of shoes

    Shoes sold in Western cultures generally fall into one of the following categories: dress, casual, work, snow, athletic.

    Dress Shoes

    Dress shoes are categorized by smooth and supple leather uppers, leather soles, and narrow sleek shape.

    Although dress shoes are commonly made to be worn by one of the sexes, such as men's shoes or women's shoes, many styles of dress shoes can be worn by either sex. The majority of dress shoes have an upper covering, commonly made of leather, enclosing most of the lower foot, but not covering the ankles. This upper part of the shoe is often made without apertures or openings, but also made with openings or even a connected series of straps, e. g. an open toe feature in women's shoes. Shoes with ankle length (covering the ankles) upper bodies are also available. Such shoes often have zippers to open them.

    Men's dress shoes
    Some examples of men's dress shoe styles

    Oxfords or balmorals
    Derbies or bluchers
    Wingtips
    Monk Straps
    Loafers (including penny loafers)
    Spectator shoes
    Saddle shoes

    Women's dress shoes
    Some examples of women's dress shoe styles

    Normal heels
    Flat shoes - usually called "flats"
    Ballerina shoes - mimicing the visual style of the professinal ballet shoes, pointe shoes.
    Medium height heels ("kitten" heels have less than 2 inches of height)
    High heels
    Stiletto heels - an extreme variety
    Open-toed
    Strap upper body shoes

    Either sex
    Clogs - Fashionable at one time
    Platform shoes - shoes with very thick soles and heels, mainly worn by women in the U.S
    Moccasins - originated by American Indians

    Casual Shoes
    Casual shoes are characterized by sturdy leather uppers, non-leather outsoles, and wide profile.

    Mary Jane (shoe)
    Espadrilles - a casual sandal, with a canvas top and a rope sole




  15. #40
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    Athletic Shoes
    Men's and women's athletic shoes and special function shoes often have less difference between the sexes than in dress shoes. In many cases these shoes can be worn by either sex. Emphasis tends to be more on function than style.

    Gym shoes (often called sneakers or trainers in slang) - general purpose athletic shoes; made out of rubber, cloth, and/or plastic to be lightweight, flexible, and have good traction. Special varieties available for basketball or tennis.
    Running shoes - very similar to above
    Boating shoes - also similar to above. They have soft soles/heels to avoid marring or scratching a boat deck.
    Track shoes - often have cleats
    Football shoes - have cleats
    Golf shoes
    Bowling shoes - intermediate style between ordinary dress shoes and athletic shoes. They have harder rubber soles/heels so as not to damage bowling alley floors. They are often rented or loaned at bowling alleys.
    Hiking shoes (could be boots)
    Walking shoes - have a more flexible sole than the running shoe is much lighter weight than the hiking boot and is more likely to have air holes in it than to be water proof.
    Climbing shoes
    Orthopedic shoes - specially designed for people with foot problems.
    Skating shoes - typically called skates. They have various attachments for skating on the bottom of the shoe portion.
    Ice Skates
    Figure skating
    Speed skating
    Ice skating
    Roller skates
    Roller blades
    Ski boots should be covered under boots or skiing
    Skateboarding shoes- used for skateboarding, but worn by many teens for fashion
    Cycling shoes are equipped with a metal cleat to interface with clipless pedals
    Sneaker boots and sneaker pumps - a shoe that looks like an athletic shoe, but is equiped with a high heel and thus makes it hard to be used for anything but as dress shoes.




  16. #41
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    Dancing shoes
    Dance shoes - special shoes made for tap dancing. They make the tapping noise while the tap-dancer dances.
    Pointe shoes - shoes designed for professional ballet dancing.
    Tango/Flamenco dnce shoes.




  17. #42
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    Shoe etiquette

    In most parts of the world (Asia, Eastern Europe, parts of the Middle East and Africa, much of Northern Europe and Canada, as well as Alaska) it is customary to remove shoes when returning to one's own home or visiting others. In the US it is not a "custom", but it is very common. People do this to avoid tracking in dirt, mud, snow, or other unpleasant things stepped on in the street. This is because people in most countries wish to keep their homes and carpets clean. On the other hand, in some countries (e.g. the US and Western Europe) some people are displeased if others take shoes off in their company. It is often explained by foot odor. However, some Americans leave their shoes on when returning to their own home, even if there is no one around to offend by potential foot odor. This practice is however unhygenic, as it exacerbates the odor by providing ideal conditions for fungal infections such as athlete's foot and other diseases of the feet. In almost all parts of the world, people will remove their shoes if they have been walking through snow or mud; this applies to countries where the "foot odor" stigma exists as well. It might be mentioned that foot odor results partly from wearing shoes for many hours; this is a possible explanation for the "foot odor" fear in countries where shoes are worn for most of the day. People in these countries sometimes do not remove their shoes until they absolutely must, for example, bathing or going to sleep. However foot odor can develop in even a short amount of time, and depends also on the type of socks, shoes and the individual.

    People wearing specialized types of shoes, such as snow boots, work boots, or high heels, often remove their shoes upon returning to their homes. This is true even in countries where shoes are not normally taken off.

    In the Middle East and Thailand, it is considered rude to show the soles of the feet to others (even accidentally, such as by crossing the legs). In addition, in Thailand, it is an extreme insult for the foot, socks, or shoes to touch someone's head or be placed over it. Although feet touching heads is an extremely rare occurrence in any society, some Muay Thai boxers insult each other by "kicking" the opponent's head with their foot (most Muay Thai kicks are executed with the shin).

    Sitting in trains it is often allowed to put one's feet on the opposite seat, provided that one takes one's shoes off or put them on a newspaper, piece of clothing, bag, etc., to avoid possible dirtying of the seat. Many people in Western countries put their feet up on the seat in front of them in movie theaters, although this is considered rude by some.




  18. #43
    Senior Member Rasputin's Avatar
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    How to Iron a Shirt

    Unfortunately, many shirts do need ironing - but if you learn to do it yourself, you'll save enough on dry-cleaning to buy several more.

    Steps:

    1. Find the tag on your shirt that indicates what it's made of.

    2. Plug in the iron and set the dial to the recommended setting for that fabric. 100-percent cotton and linen need a high setting; wools and cotton blends call for medium heat; polyester, rayon, nylon, silk, acetate and acrylic all need a low heat setting.

    3. Fill the iron with distilled water if you will be using the "steam" setting on cottons or linens.

    4. Iron the back of the collar first, then the front, taking care to iron in from the edges a little at a time to avoid creases.

    5. Open cuffs fully. Iron inside first, then outside.

    6. Iron sleeves after smoothing them flat to avoid creases. Do sleeve backs first, fronts second and take extra care on armhole seams.

    7. Hang shirt over board so that one front panel of the shirt can be extended flat (collar at narrower end of board). Iron from shoulder to shirttail.

    8. Rotate shirt over board so that you iron the back next, and the other front panel last.




  19. #44
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    How to Choose a Shampoo

    Shampoo not only washes your hair, it keeps it healthy and strong. Make sure you're using the best shampoo for your hair type.

    Steps:

    1. Identify your hair type. Is it oily? Normal? Consult your hairdresser if necessary.

    2. Feel lucky if you have normal hair. Choose a shampoo that is made specifically for normal hair, and make sure it's meant for daily or every-other-day washes.

    3. Choose a gentle shampoo that is made specifically for oily hair and/or for daily use, if your hair gets greasy. Make sure it has ingredients like tea tree oil, sage oil and chamomile.

    4. Opt for a moisturizing shampoo for curly hair, and a protein-based shampoo for kinky hair.

    5. Read the label on a protein-based shampoo and make sure that protein is listed as one of the first ingredients, followed by shea butter, glycerin, sulfur or carotene.

    6. Use a color-safe shampoo and conditioner every day for hair that's been dyed, bleached or highlighted.


    Warnings:

    Avoid conditioning shampoos if you have oily hair.

    Tips

    If you have color treated hair, don't use regular shampoo's because they will fade your color faster. Use shampoo/conditioner for color treated hair only. The others have more detergent in them and will fade your color a lot faster. Wash your hair in lukewarm water, not hot, and rinse with cool water and a shot of cold water. It really works, and it makes your hair shine and the color last longer!




  20. #45
    Senior Member Rasputin's Avatar
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    How to Become a Personal Shopper

    Love to shop? Turn that passion into a money-making venture and become a personal shopper. Yes, you can get paid to shop for others!


    Steps:

    1. Get some experience. Retail sales will give you a great foundation. You'll be in touch with products, trends, brand names and price points.

    2. Do your research. If you want to dress someone else, you must know a lot about that person's profession, including what they need to wear and what styles and colors are acceptable. Talk to store buyers and flip through the monthly fashion magazines to keep up with trends and hot new labels.

    3. Take notes and build a library. Log everything you did and didn't sell to a client, why you chose it and how the client did with the purchase. Analyze the trends and develop your own ideas about how they can be worked into a man's or a woman's wardrobe.

    4. Make the transition from being a popular sales associate at a department store to being a personal shopper. Show store management the amount of revenue you've brought in over a year and your thick address book of active clients. Get written testimonials from your regulars about how much they value your services and trust your skills.

    5. Go solo by organizing your skills and marketing your portfolio. Start with colleagues from your previous profession, friends, relatives and neighbors. Target busy men and women whose professions dictate a certain dress and leave them little time or energy to get their closets together.

    6. Get on the phone or send e-mail. Whether you're employed by a store or working solo, your clients are busy - that's why they've enlisted your services. It's up to you to tell them all about the latest styles that complement their wardrobes.


    Tips:

    Know your client's budget and respect it. Always offer your clients a variety of options, but avoid exceeding their budgets. You'll establish a bond and trust with your clients and keep them coming back for your services.

    Diversify your offerings. Give your clients the option of using your services for corporate or family gift giving. Target Christmas well in advance, and over time become acquainted with the special dates your clients and their relatives may celebrate: anniversaries, birthdays, graduations and so forth.




  21. #46
    Senior Member Rasputin's Avatar
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    Model (person)

    model is a person who acts as a human prop for purposes of art, fashion, advertising, pornography, etc.

    Modeling is distinguished from other types of public performance, such as an acting, dancing or mime artistry, although the boundary is probably not well defined. Appearing in a movie or a play is generally not considered to be modeling, irrespective of the nature of the role. But many models can also describe themselves as actors. Some models have acquired the status of sex symbol, and a highly paid model is sometimes known as a "supermodel." Supermodels are celebrities who may appear in advertisements endorsing products, and often parlay their fame into acting careers, or other areas of the entertainment or fashion industry.

    Non-professional models who appear on the list of women's magazines on which any magazine's name is, are known by the name of "reader model."
    "Runway modeling," also known as "catwalk modeling," is displaying fashion, and is generally performed by "fashion models." "Glamour modeling" usually includes elements of nudity or eroticism, while "nude modeling" describes any kind of modeling that is performed without clothes. Art school modeling (usually figure drawing or sculpture) involves posing for students of art. Some models specialize in having a particular portion of their body photographed, usually for advertisement purposes; thus "leg models" advertise hosiery, "hand models" advertise nail polish or gloves, et cetera.

    For notable models, see supermodel and glamour photography.




  22. #47
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    Supermodel

    A supermodel is a highly paid fashion model in an elite group with a worldwide reputation. In an article in Glamour Magazine in 1968, author described Twiggy, Cheryl Tiegs, Verushka, Jean Shrimpton and fifteen other top models as "Supermodels"The term "Supermodel" gained currency by analogy with Andy Warhol's "superstars" of the 1960s, and, like "superstardom", it has been conflated to include almost anyone who finds steady access to work, with top designers, fashion magazines and commercial clients; uncommon in the highly volatile fashion industry. In the early 60s the term "top models" was used by magazines/fashion critics to define famous and highly paid models, way before the term "supermodel" became popular. Today, these two terms are used to define two different groups. "Supermodels" according to Tyra Banks are famous highly paid models, and "top models" are noted fashion models.

    While the term gained popularity in the 1980s, a number of models had become famous in their own right as far back as Dorian Leigh in the late 1940s. Amongst the first models whose name and face were familiar to those outside the fashion industry include Suzy Parker, a model in the 1950s, and Cheryl Tiegs in the 1960s. Others claim that Janice Dickinson has the right to the title of first supermodel since she is credited with the coining the term in 1979. However, as shown by the 1968 article in Glamour, she did not coin the phrase, but gained wide notoriety by publicly proclaiming herself as "The World's First Supermodel". Still others claim Lisa Fonssagrives, wife of two photographers, first of Fernand Fonssagrives and then Irving Penn, to be the world's first supermodel; none have surpassed her over 200 covers of Vogue alone. She was in every fashion magazine during the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s from Town and Country, Life, Life, Vogue, and the original Vanity Fair to the cover of Time. Jean Shrimpton, Colleen Corby, Twiggy as well as Veruschka (all from the mid- Sixties) have claim to the title of Supermodel too.

    The high point of the supermodel era was in the 1980s and 1990s, with some of the most famous being "The Trinity" of Linda Evangelista, Naomi Campbell, and Christy Turlington. Also in this era, models like Paulina Porizkova paved the way for an influx of Eastern European models. It was at this time that Cindy Crawford successfully leveraged her modelling fame into hosting her own television show, MTV's House of Style, creating and promoting many exercise video tapes, and posing in Playboy (she was the first supermodel/model to do all of these).

    Supermodels are, almost by definition, sex symbols. Supermodels of today are globally famous, and parlay their celebrity into product endorsement deals and often into acting careers. Supermodels who have also made the switch include Milla Jovovich, Elle Macpherson, Rebecca Romijn, and Tricia Helfer.

    According to Forbes magazine, as of 2004, the five highest-paid supermodels in the world were, in descending order, Milla Jovovich, Gisele Bündchen, Heidi Klum, Caroline Murphy, and Tyra Banks. VH1's recent episode of The Fabulous Life Of...Supermodels included Naomi Campbell as among the top 3 wealthiest supermodels in the world.

    In the past almost all, and even today most supermodels are female; however, more and more male models are also becoming famous. The position of the world's most famous and highest paid male supermodel is currently usually contested between Jamaican-American actor and model Tyson Beckford, and Dutch-Swedish model and bodybuilder Marcus Schenkenberg; as well as Mark Vanderloo and Brad Kroenig.

    In 2005, tired of hearing this label attached to so many people, the musician LeCain played devil's advocate and commented that a 'measure of success' was necessary to stop TV from tirelessly using the term for every girl wanting model stardom. He threw into the equation that a supermodel was someone that had attained US$20 million in the duration of their career.




  23. #48
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    Glamour photography

    Glamour photography is the photographing of a model (nowadays usually female, often nude or semi-nude), in a way that is intended to be erotic.

    What is considered "glamour" has changed with the times. In the 1940s, clothed "pin-up" pictures were "glamour." Many movie stars were featured in pin-up poses showing them in swimsuits. In the 1950s and early 1960s, photographers such as Peter Gowland produced glamour images with partial nudity.

    Nude glamour photography has been claimed by its practitioners and admirers to be non-pornographic to the extent it does not involve the depiction of sex acts. People who disapprove of nude or semi-nude photography may pejoratively label it pornography.

    Nude or semi-nude pictures of glamour models typically appear in "softcore" adult magazines (so-called "girlie magazines") such as Playboy or in the pages of European tabloid newspapers: for example, the topless 'Page 3 girls' of the British tabloid The Sun.

    At the same time, the less revealing style of glamour photography continues, for example in men's magazines like Maxim and FHM.

    There is a system of terms developed in the British glamour photography business to describe the graded levels of explicitness involved:

    glamour (that is to say, typically a skimpy swimsuit, lingerie in the case of women, or briefs in the case of men)
    topless (exposing the breasts)
    artistic nude (exposing the whole body apart from the genitalia)
    magazine nude (exposing the genitalia)
    "American" or "continental" (hardcore pornography)
    Recently, the glamour photography market has moved stratified into two categories: "top shelf" magazines have generally moved in the direction of hardcore pornography in an attempt to compete with easily-available Internet pornography, whilst a new generation of men's magazines such as Maxim, FHM and Loaded has sprung up to meet the demand for tamer material, often with lingerie or swimsuit depictions of minor celebrities.




  24. #49
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    Cover girl

    A cover girl is a female model or entertainer whose photograph appears on the front cover of a magazine to attract attention on the shelf, usually a magazine devoted to women's interests (such as Redbook or Seventeen) or men's interests (such as Gentlemen's Quarterly, Maxim or Esquire). The term first appeared in English in 1915.

    Almost always, a special photo session is done and the woman is given a makeover so her appearance conforms to the type exalted by the magazine. After having been specially made-up, dressed and groomed, the subject of the cover photo will then be carefully lit in the most flattering light possible. They will then be photographed from dozens to hundreds of times, and the most flattering images selected.

    The images thus obtained will then be retouched; the eyes and teeth of the woman will be brightened towards peak white, all skin blemishes and skin texture airbrushed out, and her figure may be artificially slimmed and elongated. Sometimes, the head of one model will be used on the body of another. In recent years, digital post-processing has been used in the place of airbrushing and other traditional photographic techniques.

    The end product often bears little resemblance to the normal appearance of the person that stood before the camera, and provides an impossible role model for other people to live up to. Some people allege that because of this, cover girl images are responsible for encouraging girls and women to develop anorexia nervosa.




  25. #50
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    Figure drawing

    Figure drawing, also known as life drawing, is an exercise in drawing the human body in its various shapes and positions. It is arguably the most difficult subject an artist commonly encounters, and entire classes are dedicated to the subject. The human figure is one of the most enduring themes in the visual arts, and figure drawing can be applied to portraiture, comic book illustration, sculpture, medical illustration, and other fields that use depictions of the human form. Figure drawing can be done very simply (with charcoal, for example), or in more detail, by pencil or using other forms of drawing tools. If paint is used, the process may be called figure painting.

    Artists take a variety of approaches to drawing the human figure. They may draw from live models, from photographs or other reference material, or from memory and imagination. Most instruction focuses on the use of models in "life drawing" courses. The use of photographic reference - although common since the development of photography - is often criticized or discouraged by experts. They argue that the inability to see the figure in three dimensions results in "flat" images that fail to capture the dynamic aspects of the subject. Drawing from imagination is often lauded for the expressiveness it encourages, and criticized for the inaccuracies introduced by the artist's lack of knowledge or limited memory in visualizing the human figure; the experience of the artist with other methods has a large influence on the effectiveness of this approach.

    In developing the image, some artists focus on the shapes created by the interplay of light and dark values on the surfaces of the body. Others take an anatomical approach, beginning by approximating the internal skeleton of the figure, overlaying the internal organs and musculature, and covering those shapes with the skin, and finally (if applicable) clothing; study of human internal anatomy is usually involved in this technique. Another approach is to loosely construct the body out of primitive shapes, e.g., a sphere for the cranium, a cylinder for the torso, etc. then refine those shapes to more closely resemble the human form.

    For those working without visual reference (or as a means of checking one's work) proportions commonly recommended in figure drawing are:

    An average person, is generally 7-and-a-half heads tall (including the head).
    An ideal figure, used for an impression of nobility or grace, is drawn at 8 heads tall.
    An heroic figure, used in the heroic for the depiction of gods and superheroes, is eight-and-a-half heads tall. Most of the additional length comes from a bigger chest and longer legs.
    Note that these proportions are most useful for a standing model. Poses which introduce foreshortening of various body parts will cause them to differ.




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