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  • #46
    Originally posted by RedWine View Post
    Bichareh Iran... Chi boudim va Chi shodim...
    che harfe jalebi zadi siamak,in ja hame tasvire iran ro ba harfaie ahmadinejad ke booie jang mide mishnasan
    ghabl az enghelab che ghodrati dashtim.ghabl az enghelabo bi khial zamane khatami.man zamane khatami didam italiaii ha dar morode iran che tafakore mosbati dashtan vali hala

    Comment


    • #47
      The issue of German responsibility in the Armenian Genocide has been researched by a number of scholars in the past decades. The Ottoman Empire was an ally of Germany during WWI, when up to a million and a half Armenians were uprooted from the Empire and perished in a state-sponsored campaign of mass annihilation.

      On June 15, 2005, the German Parliament passed a motion honoring and commemorating “the victims of violence, murder and expulsion among the Armenian people before and during the First World War.” The Bundestag deplored “the deeds of the Young Turkish government in the Ottoman Empire which have resulted in the almost total annihilation of the Armenians in Anatolia.”

      The Bundestag also acknowledged and deplored “the inglorious role played by the German Reich which, in spite of a wealth of information on the organized expulsion and annihilation of Armenians, has made no attempt to intervene and stop these atrocities.”

      In this interview with Professor Margaret Anderson, conducted by phone from Beirut, we discuss issues related to Germany and the Armenian Genocide.

      Margaret Anderson is a professor of history at the University of California in Berkeley. She received her Ph.D. from Brown University. She has researched electoral politics and political culture in Germany and in a comparative European perspective; democracy and democratic institutions; religion and politics; and religion and society, -especially Catholicism in the 19th century. She is the author of Windthorst: A Political Biography (Oxford University Press, 1981 and , Practicing Democracy: Elections and Political Culture in Imperial Germany (Princeton University Press, 2000). Her research has more recently revolved around Germany and the Ottoman Empire during the Armenian Genocide.

      Khatchig Mouradian: How did you first become interested in the Armenian Genocide?

      Margaret Anderson: It was quite an accident. When I finished my last book, I needed to do something different so that I didn’t get stale. A colleague of mine, who researched Italian history during the same period, said “You should work on the Armenians.” I told him that I can’t work on the Armenians, I don’t read Armenian, I don’t read Turkish. And he said, yes, but you read German and there is a lot of stuff to do on Germany.” He was right. There are 56 volumes in the German Foreign Office devoted to the Armenian persecutions, as well as many more under other titles—like the embassy in Constantinople—that are quite relevant to this horrible story.

      I have a colleague, Stephan Astourian, a specialist in Armenian history, without whom I could never have begun this. He was immediately helpful in steering me to the proper Armenian sources and letting me understand the historiography.

      K.M.: How thoroughly have these documents been researched?

      M.A.: Vahakn N. Dadrian has used them, most notably in German Responsibility in The Armenian Genocide: A Review of the Historical Evidence of German Complicity (1996), and even before that several other people have done it. Ulrich Trumpener had an excellent chapter in his 1968 book, Germany and the Ottoman Empire 1914-1918. More recently, Rolf Hosfeld's Operation Nemesis: Die Türkei, Deutschland und der Völkermord an den Armeniern (2005); Isabel V. Hull, Absolute Destruction: Military Culture and the Practices of War in Imperial Germany (Cornell, Ithaca, 2005) and Donald Bloxham, The Great Game of Genocide: Imperialism, Nationalism, and the Destruction of the Armenians (Oxford, 2005) employ these documents to good effect. As far as I know, scholars in Turkey haven’t published anything using these materials; though when I was in the German Foreign Office Archives in Berlin, it was clear that some Turkish scholars had seen them. When you work in German archives you have to sign a sheet saying you have used these documents. So sometimes you can see who has used them ahead of you. Now, the documents from the German Foreign Office published by Johannes Lepsius in 1919 (under the title Deutschland und Armenien), along with the parts that his edition left out (which are not as significant as some scholars have thought) can be found online, edited by Wolfgang Gust. Gust has inserted in italics the parts that Lepsius's Deutschland und Armenien left out. Gust was able to do this by comparing Lepsius’s collection with the original documents.



      Comment


      • #48
        Deny the Armenian Genocide?

        A lawsuit brought by the political activist lawyers Harvey A. Silverglate and Norman S. Zalkind, primarily on behalf of the Assembly of Turkish American Associations, which demands that the denial of the Armenian Genocide be taught alongside the history of that genocide in Massachusetts’s public schools, is not about freedom of thought or expression, as they argue in their suit, but is just the latest in a series of clumsy attempts by the government of the Republic of Turkey and its surrogates to minimize, cover-up or deny one of the 20th century’s most brutal crimes against humanity.

        At stake in this lawsuit is not only the right of the people of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts to have their children learn about the Armenian Genocide and other massive abuses of human rights like the Middle Passage or the Great Hunger in a way consistent with established evidence, but whether or not their children’s classrooms can remain free from purposeful historical fabrication, crack-pot theories and the influence of foreign governments.

        This case itself is predicated on one of these theories: the Armenian Genocide did not happen and therefore websites, primarily those created by the Turkish government, supporting that position should be included in the commonwealth’s human rights’ curriculum. But it is also based on a misunderstanding of how history and historians work and ignores the reality that only the Turkish government and a tiny handful of specialists, continues to hold that there was no genocide.

        Thus, not only is this lawsuit an abuse of our legal system that mocks the value of open academic exchange and informed debate, it is an abuse of history.

        Conversely, the Armenian Genocide is a fact of history.

        During World War I, the government of the Ottoman Empire — which was allied with Germany and is the predecessor of the Republic of Turkey — used its military and irregular troops to mount a campaign of ethnic cleansing and deportation that resulted directly in the death of a large portion of the empire’s Armenian civilian population, many of whom were killed outright during initial round-ups or who later starved to death on the banks of the Euphrates River. Most were civilians living in Central Anatolia, far from any combat zone and were primarily unarmed farmers, shopkeepers, doctors or state employees and otherwise loyal citizens of the empire.

        The historical consensus that it was a genocide, in the common understanding of the term, is based on a preponderance of evidence from various sources — including telegrams, eye witness testimony and documents introduced at a series of post-war war crime trials, and first-hand reports by European and American diplomats and missionaries. This evidence proves not just what happened, but establishes intent and culpability on the part of the Ottoman government. And it is important to recall the precedent set by the post-WWII trials at Nuremburg, which holds that responsibility for committing genocide rests not just on those who pulled the trigger or the lever, but also on those officials who created conditions of starvation or lawlessness in which mass death and extra-judicial killing took place.

        Where mainstream historians differ are on issues of causes and effects, the specific numbers of deaths and the long-term impact of the genocide on Armenian survivor communities spread throughout the world, including a very large community in Massachusetts, as well as on political culture in Turkey. The fact that historians may debate particular elements of the genocide is not the same thing as a lack of consensus.

        To ask our social studies and history teachers to give “equal time” to denial is akin to making them spend valuable moments in the classroom having students study those who would want us to believe that plantation slavery in the Old South wasn’t so bad, Japanese Americans in California were a serious security threat and had to be interned in camps, and that the Holocaust didn’t happen. Historians shouldn't have to teach these things in the same way that biologists shouldn't have to teach “intelligent design,” or that geographers shouldn't have to teach that the Earth is flat.

        The irony is that in Turkey today, Turkish historians and intellectuals who publicly dissent from their own government’s denial of the Armenian Genocide are being arrested and tried on charges of “insulting Turkey.” This includes Orhan Pamuk, Turkey’s most prominent author, as well as lesser known journalists and academics.

        There is another way.

        In mid-November, the Middle East Studies Association of North America, the world’s largest organization of specialists of that troubled region, voted to award F. Müge Göçek, a Turkish-American historical sociologist at the University of Michigan and Ronald Grigor Suny, an Armenian-American historian at the University of Chicago its Academic Freedom Award. The award was in part a recognition of their efforts to work together, use the tools of history and move beyond a sterile debate about whether or not the genocide happened to a more useful conversation about the shared past of Armenians and Turks and ways to prevent genocide in the future.



        Comment


        • #49
          مسيحيان ايران اين روزها در تدارك جشن سال نو مسيحي هستند تا با حضور در كليساها و دعا و نيايش، سالروز ميلاد عيسي مسيح را نيزگرامي بدارند.

          عيد كريسمس نيز يكي*ازرسوم نيك در ميان ملت*هاي مختلف جهان است و مسيحيان ايران همانند ديگر مسيحيان جهان اين ايام را به شادي مي*گذرانند.

          از نسخ تاريخي چنين برمي آيد كه در يكي از همين شب*هاي سرد زمستان كه ظلمت و جهل بر گرده بشريت سنگيني مي*كرد، مسيح آمد تاازسوي خداوند پيام*آور صلح و دوستي براي آزادگان جهان باشد.

          پيروان آن حضرت روز ميلاد مسيح را به اندازه*اي عزيز و مبارك مي*شمارند كه عيد خود و شروع سال را برپايه آن بنا نهاده*اند.

          دكتر"احمد نوري*زاده" محقق درزمينه تاريخ مسيحيان و ارامنه در ايران به چگونگي شروع سال*مسيحي اشاره كرد و گفت: بر اساس باور كليساي كاتوليك، روز ميلاد حضرت عيسي (ع) و شروع سال مسيحي ‪ ۲۵‬دسامبر برابر با چهارم دي ماه*است اما با توجه به باور فرقه*هاي مختلف مسيحي، تا ‪ ۱۴‬ژانويه براي مسيحيان عيد تلقي مي*شود.

          وي گفت: ارامنه گريگوري نخستين قومي در تاريخ هستند كه دين مسيحيت را به*رسميت شناختندو ششم ژانويه را شب عيد و ميلاد مسيح مي*دانند كه در زبان ارمني به آن " زاديك" مي*گويند.

          نوري زاده تصريح كرد: اين گروه شب ‪ ۳۱‬دسامبر كه شروع سال است را براي همراهي با ديگر مسيحيان جشن مي*گيرند، اما عيد اصلي آنان برابر ششم ژانويه يا ‪ ۱۶‬دي*ماه است.

          به گفته "دريك مليكيان"، سردبير روزنامه ارمني زبان " آليك" ، بر اساس اعتقادات كليساي*ارامنه كه در سال ‪ ۳۰۰‬ميلادي خود را مستقل اعلام*كرد، ارامنه دنيا در شروع سال ميلادي دو جشن برگزار مي*كنند، يكي شب ‪ ۳۱‬دسامبر كه شب تحويل سال نامگذاري شده است و ديگري ششم ژانويه و عيد "زاديك".

          وي گفت: درفاصله يك هفته*اي اين دوعيد، ارامنه مراسم ويژه خود را برگزار مي كنند.

          سردبير روزنامه " آليك" با تشريح مراسم عيد نو مسيحي،گفت : در اين دو روز ارامنه به كليسا مي*روند و اسقف اعظم دعا و خطابه*هاي مخصوص سال نو را به جا مي*آورد.

          وي افزود: ارامنه، فلسفه سال نو را در نو شدن زندگي از لباس و پوشاك و خانه تكاني تا شروع زندگي تازه و از بين بردن كدورت*ها مي*بينند.

          مليكيان گفت: براساس اعتقادات ارامنه،از ‪ ۳۱‬دسامبر تا ششم ژانويه و به مدت يك*هفته خانواده*ها مراسم ويژه سال نو را برگزار مي*كنند و ارامنه ايران نيز در تعطيلات چهار روزه سال نو مسيحي اين مراسم را برگزار مي*كنند.

          نوري زاده*محقق ايراني همچنين با اشاره به نمادهاي سال نو مسيحي، گفت:
          "مارتين لوتر" پايه گذار پروتسانيسم در شب عيد مسيحي شاخه*هاي درخت كاج را مي بريد و به خانه مي*برد و با تزيين آنها، به اطرافيان شادماني مي*بخشيد.

          وي افزود: از آن زمان تزيين درخت كاج كريسمس بين مسيحيان باب شد.

          "آناسيك باباخانيان" يكي از هموطنان ارمني نيز سمبل نشاط و نو شدن را درخت كاج كريسمس دانست و گفت: درخت كريسمس با ميوه*هاي مختلفي تزيين مي*شود كه هريك از اين ميوه*ها به نوعي نمادي از زندگي هستند.

          وي افزود: به باور ارامنه، دو هزار سال پيش كه مسيح متولد شد،اطرافيان و حواريون وي به بركت اين ميلاد مبارك، شيريني و خوراكي مهيا كردند و در كنار يكديگر به جشن پرداختند.

          باباخانيان گفت : بر اساس اين اعتقاد، ارامنه براي شب عيد، خوراك*هاي رنگين تهيه مي*كنند و سفره*هاي خود را با انواع شيريني و بيسكويت مخصوص كه به شكل برگ كاج است، تزيين مي*كنند.

          "رنه وارتانيان" از ديگر هموطنان ارمني است كه در تدارك سال نو و جشن -هاي پيش رو به خريد انواع تنقلات مشغول است.

          وي به خبرنگار ايرنا گفت: در شب تحويل سال نو "‪ ۳۱‬دسامبر" اغلب اوقات افراد فاميل در يك جا جمع مي*شوند و در كنار يكديگر عيد را جشن مي*گيرند.

          وارتانيان گفت:به طور معمول بزرگان خانواده وظيفه ميزباني را برعهده مي گيرند و ديگر افراد خانواده در برپايي جشن به آنان كمك مي*كنند.

          وي گفت: مسلمانان همواره با خوشرويي و آغوش باز از عيد ميلادي استقبال كرده*اند.

          وارتانيان شادي كودكان را قسمتي از زيبايي شب عيد مسيحي دانست و گفت كه كودكان در اين شب با اميد و آرزوي هديه بابانوئل به خواب مي*روند تا صبح روز عيد را با دريافت هداياي زيبا شروع كنند.




          Comment


          • #50
            ta unjayee ke ma midoonam , khonamoon nazdike yekia z mahalehaye aramane neshine too irane. khodam behtarin doostama ramane boodan, vaghtiaazashoon miporsidim shoma ke tatilate eide pako mirin aramanestanchera unja nemimoonid?? migoftan ma irano doost darim, dalili nemibinim berim az iran. una baraye khdoeshoon disco daran, mahale party daran. tanha limiteshoon too khiaboonast ke bayad tebghe ghanoone iran pish beran, inghade ke khodemoon narazi hastim una narazi nistan.

            nemidoonam ,vala man ta inja ke midoonam too iran be aramane kheili baha midadan



            MAHSA














            [/CENTER]

            Comment


            • #51
              Armenian-Iranians are ethnic Armenians who live in Iran. Their current population is somewhere around 400,000 They mostly live in Tehran and Isfahan Jolfa. The Armenian-Iranians were very influential and active in the modernization of Iran during the 19th and 20th centuries. After the Iranian Revolution, many Armenians immigrated to Armenian diasporic communities in North America and western Europe. Today the Armenians are Iran's largest Christian religious minority.

              Ever since Antiquity there has been much interaction between Ancient Armenia and Persia (Iran).

              On the Behistun inscription of 515 BC, Darius I of Persia indirectly confirmed that Urartu and Armenia are synonymous when describing his conquests. Armenia became a satrap of the Persian Empire for a long period of time. Regardless, relations between Armenians and Persians was cordial.

              Prior to third century AD no other neighbor has had as much influence on the Armenian life and culture as Persia (Iran). They shared many religious and cultural elements and intermarriage among Iranian and Armenian nobility was common. Armenians conversion to Christianity in fourth century alienated them from Persians who were mostly Zoroastrian and Iranian conversion to Islam in 7th century deepened this alienation.

              In eleventh century, the Seljuk Turks drove thousands of Armenians to Iranian Azerbaijan, where some were sold as slaves and others worked as artisans and merchants. After the Mongol conquest of Iran in the thirteenth century many Armenian merchants and artists settled in the Iran, in cities bordering historic Armenia such as Khoi, Maku, Maraghe, Urmia, and especially Tabriz.

              Although Armenians have a long history of interaction with Persia/Iran, Iran's Armenian community emerged when Shah Abbas relocated tens of thousands of Armenians from Nakhichevan to an area of Isfahan called New Julfa, which was created to become an Armenian quarter. Iran quickly recognized the Armenians' dexterity in commerce.

              The community became active in the cultural and economic development of Iran.

              In early 20th century many Iranian Armenians, under the command of leaders like Yeprem Khan, participated in Iranian constitutional revolution.

              The modernization efforts of Pahlavi dynasty were beneficial for Armenian community in Iran and soon Tehran became a major center for Armenian life.

              After the 1979 Islamic revolution as many as 100,000 Armenians left Iran, However the Armenian minority is still the largest Christian community in Iran.

              Armenians are a recognized religious minority and have two seats in the Iranian parliament . In addition to having their own churches and clubs ,Armenians are among few linguistic minorities in Iran who have their own schools. Many Armenians served in the army, and some were “martyred,” during Iran-Iraq War.



              Comment


              • #52
                The Armenian Apostolic Church sometimes called the Armenian Orthodox Church or the Gregorian Church, is the world's oldest national church and one of the most ancient Christian communities.

                The earliest accounts of the introduction of Christianity into Armenia date from the 1st century, when it was first preached by two Apostles of Jesus, St. Bartholomew and St. Thaddeus. The Armenian Apostolic Church has been in existence since the days of the apostles and therefore has a rightful claim as one of the oldest denominations in Christianity. Armenia was the first country to adopt Christianity as its official religion, in 301, when St. Gregory the Illuminator converted Tiridates III (the King of Armenia) and members of his court. St. Gregory is reported to have been imprisoned by the King in an underground pit, called Khor Virab, for 13 years after which he healed the King of an incurable disease, and thereby converted to Christianity.

                Christianity was strengthened in Armenia by the translation of the Bible into the Armenian language by the Armenian theologian, monk and scholar Saint Mesrop Mashtots.


                [edit] Monophysite label
                Historically, the Armenian church has been labeled monophysite because it (just as the Coptic Orthodox Church) rejected the decisions of the Council of Chalcedon, which condemned monophysitism. The Armenian Church officially severed ties with the West in 554, during the second Council of Dvin where the dyophysite formula of the Council of Chalcedon was rejected.

                However, the Armenian Orthodox Church argues that this is a wrong description of its position, as it considers Monophysitism, as taught by Eutyches and condemned at Chalcedon, a heresy and only disagrees with the formula defined by that council. The Armenian church instead adheres to the doctrine defined by Cyril of Alexandria, considered as a saint by the Chalcedonian churches as well, who described Christ as being of one nature, where both divine and human nature are united. To distinguish this from Eutychian and other versions of Monophysitism this position is called miaphysitism.

                In recent times, both Chalcedonian and anti-Chalcedonian churches have developed a deeper understanding for each other's positions, recognizing the substantial agreement while maintaining their respective theological language. Hence, the Monophysite label is avoided to describe the Armenians' or Copts' belief regarding the Nature of Christ.

                The Armenian Apostolic Church is headed by a Catholicos (the plural is Catholicoi). (The Armenian Apostolic Church should not be confused, however, with the Armenian Catholic Church, which is an Eastern Rite Catholic church in communion with the See of Rome (whose bishop is the Pope).

                At present, the Catholicos of All Armenians is his Holiness Karekin II (sometimes spelled as Garegin), who resides in the city of Echmiadzin, west of Yerevan. A second Catholicos, His Holiness Aram I Catholicos of Cilicia, who resides in Antilyas in Lebanon, leads churches belonging to the Holy See of Cilicia. The division stems from frequent relocations of the Church headquarters under Ottoman Rule and was further reinforced during the period in which Armenia was part of the Soviet Union. However, the Catholicos of All Armenians claims theoretical sovereignty over the Catholicos of Cilicia. The Armenian Apostolic Church is also the only Church in the world to have a democratic system [citation needed]; the people decide if they want to keep priests in their churches and may ask for different ones.



                Comment


                • #53
                  A new law granting the right of dual citizenship in Armenia has come under fire from critics who say they are worried it is open to abuse.

                  Citizenship in Armenia is a major issue because twice as many Armenians live outside the country as inside it. The republic’s population is officially three million people, while more than twice that number live elsewhere. There are large diaspora communities in United States, France, Lebanon and elsewhere, mainly descendants of the 1915 genocide in the Ottoman Empire. The largest community is in Russia, formed during the Soviet Union and by large-scale migration there since 1991.

                  President Robert Kocharian made a law on dual citizenship one of his first pledges, before he first took office in 1998. However, Armenia’s 1995 constitution explicitly ruled out the possibility of dual citizenship and it was not until 2005 that a referendum was held that approved constitutional amendments and allowed for a new law to be adopted.

                  This week, parliament has been debating amendments to Armenia’s citizenship law, which will allow under certain conditions for the first time citizens of other countries to hold Armenian citizenship as well. The assembly will vote on the draft law on February 26.

                  The most passionate support for the change has come from the nationalist Dashnaktsutiun party, which has a strong base outside Armenia. One of the Dashnak leaders, Hrant Margarian, said dual citizenship was the first step towards uniting the Armenian people.

                  Dashnaktsutiun parliamentary leader Hrair Karapetian said it was important from a moral point of view to accept the principle of dual citizenship. “Historical justice will be restored regarding the Armenians, who lost their motherland against their will,” he said.

                  Karapetian also argued that dual citizenship would help attract more diaspora money to Armenia. He said that up to now the diaspora’s economic potential has not been fully used, because Armenians living abroad feel offended, thinking that in Armenia they are seen as “milk cows” who provide investments but get nothing in return.

                  The draft law allows citizens of other countries to take up Armenian citizenship but under certain conditions. If they are male, they are eligible for military service in Armenia, unless they have already done in another country.

                  In parliament, Justice Minister David Harutiunian said that foreigners seeking to obtain Armenian citizenship would be stripped of their right to diplomatic protection on Armenian territory, while businessmen who were dual nationals would no longer benefit from the privileges enjoyed by foreign investors.

                  Additionally, a dual citizen of Armenia will enjoy the right to vote if they are on Armenian territory, but cannot be a candidate for the presidency or parliament.

                  Critics of the bill have focused their concerns on the possibility that a large number of foreigners could suddenly acquire the right to vote in Armenia, saying this could open up elections to abuse.

                  Several leading opposition politicians have said they will only support the new measures if dual citizens are not given the right to vote.

                  Armenia is due to hold parliamentary elections in May this year and presidential elections next year.

                  Suren Sureniants of the opposition Republic party said that including foreign Armenians in voter registers would make it easier to manipulate electoral lists, which he said already contain the names of thousands of dead people.

                  Sureniants called the plans “absolutely unacceptable both politically and morally, and even from the viewpoint of the country’s national interests”. “People from countries with opposing interests [to ours] could become dual nationals and make Armenia the setting for the collision of these interests,” he told IWPR.

                  Prime Minister Andranik Margarian rejected the accusations, saying that the number of dual citizens who would actually vote would be small.

                  Two American Armenians told IWPR that they were hurt by the implication that dual citizens could pose a threat to their historic homeland.

                  Nairi Balanian from Philadelphia told IWPR that she would abide by all citizenship regulations and her son would be ready to serve in the army. “I will travel to Armenia to vote, I will pay taxes for Armenia,” she said.

                  Asbet Balanian, also from Philadelphia, said, “I find the official position of the Armenian Republic very offensive when they classify overseas Armenians as ‘odar’ (“foreigner” in Armenian). I am no less Armenian than an Armenian who was born in Armenia. I am even better than many Armenians who migrated from Armenia, to countries of the world and lost their Armenian identity and became real odars.”

                  Balanian said that diaspora Armenians should have analogous rights to Jews, who have the right to go and settle in Israel and receive citizenship - so long as they paid taxes and obeyed the laws of the country.

                  To the charge that the new law would put the fate of Armenia in the hands of foreigners, Margarian countered that Armenians abroad already wielded strong influence over the economy of the country. “If we think that way, we should pull down an iron curtain and not allow our compatriots to work in Armenia,” he said.



                  Comment


                  • #54
                    در بولوار برند Brand در شهر گلندل Glendale به يکی از اولين فروشگاه هايی که پا می گذاری تا سراغ آدرس انجمن ارامنه را بگيری به آقايی بلندقامت با موهای بلند جوگندمی برمی خوری که با رويی خوش از شما استقبال می کند.
                    معلوم می شود هامو سوکياسيان صاحب "شرکت بزرگ فرش" ارمنی ايرانی است و گفتگو فورا به فارسی برمی گردد.

                    او که سال 1987 از تهران به گلندل مهاجرت کرده تقريبا هجده سال است که اين فروشگاه را در قلب جامعه ارامنه در ناحيه بزرگتر لس آنجلس می گرداند.

                    با گشت و گذار کوتاهی در شهر می توان حضور ديگر ارامنه را به راحتی حس کرد: رستوران ها، کتابفروشی ها، دکه ها، آرايشگاه ها، کليسای بزرگ ارامنه و مهمتر از همه چهره هايی که بعضی از آنها شايد به خاطر آنکه تداعی گر گذشته هاست در ذهن نقش می بندد: مثل جوانی که روبروی کليسا دکه ساندويچ فروشی دارد يا زن و شوهر پيری که روبروی سينما در يک روز بهاری (وسط زمستان) روی نيمکت نشسته اند.

                    حروف ارمنی که 1600 سالگی ابداع آن اخيرا جشن گرفته شد و به اعتقاد زبان شناسان يکی از قديمی ترين حروف الفبا در جهان است که هنوز کاربرد دارد، در جای جای شهر به چشم می خورد.

                    گلندل از سه دهه پيش همزمان با تحولات بزرگی که در خاورميانه شکل می گرفت مقصدی تازه برای قومی شد که گويی سرشتش با مهاجرت عجين شده است.

                    در دهه 1970 با بلند شدن موج ملی گرايی عرب (پان عربيسم) در مصر و سوريه و اسلام گرايی در ايران، و آغاز جنگ داخلی در لبنان، که مراکز مهم سکونت ارامنه بودند، هزاران تن از آنها خاورميانه را به مقصد غرب به خصوص آمريکا ترک کردند و خيلی از آنها در بخش هايی از ناحيه بزرگتر لس آنجلس ساکن شدند.

                    براساس برخی تخمين ها اکنون 40 درصد جمعيت گلندل را ارامنه تشکيل می دهند، يعنی چيزی در حدود 85 هزار نفر. تعداد زياد ديگری در شهرهای اطراف از جمله بربنک، هاليوود، پاسادينا، فرزنو، مونتبلو، هاليوود شمالی و حتی محله ای که "ارمنستان کوچک" نام گرفته زندگی می کنند.


                    آقای سوکياسيان در گلندل فروشگاه فرش و موکت دارد

                    جمعيت ارمنی آمريکا حدود يک ميليون نفر رقم زده می شود و 80 هزار ارمنی نيز در کانادا زندگی می کنند.

                    نفوذ ارامنه در گلندل به قدری زياد شده که در سال 2005 اکثريت اعضای شورای شهر برای نخستين بار به آنها - سه عضو از پنج عضو - تعلق گرفت.

                    گلندل، در شمال غرب لس آنجلس، پای ارتفاعات بنا شده و دو طرف بلوارهای شمالی آن را نخل هايی که انگار سرشان ميان ابرهاست پوشانده اند. منظره خانه های ويلايی با سقف های روشن در پای کوه بی شباهت به برخی محله های شمال تهران نيست.

                    بلوار برند در قلب گلندل يک مرکز مهم تجاری است که بخش بزرگی از آن در دست ارامنه است.

                    اما فعاليت های اين قوم از امرار معاش فراتر می رود. اين جامعه ای است که نشانه های بلوغ آن در قالب موسسات و فعاليت های خيريه و جمعی خودنمايی می کند.

                    برای ارمنستان

                    در بلوار "گلن اوکس" کمی بالاتر از مرکز گلندل در بخش آرامتر مسکونی شهر، ساختمان "انجمن امداد ارامنه" (Armenian Relief Society) جا خوش کرده است.

                    خانم ژاسمين بنياتيان-جراحيان، جدی و پرانرژی و بی تعارف، که رئيس حسابداری بنياد است همه بخش های سازمان را نشان می دهد و با افتخار از خانم هايی صحبت می کند که سازمان را اداره می کنند. او 25 سال پيش پس از ترک ايران در گلندل رخت اقامت افکند و 16 سال است برای اين سازمان کار می کند.


                    کليسای مريم مقدس بزرگترين کليسای ارامنه در آمريکا 31 سال قدمت دارد

                    "انجمن امداد ارامنه" يک سازمان مستقل با هدف حفظ ميراث فرهنگی ارامنه و رفع نيازهای اجتماعی، پزشکی و آموزشی جوامع ارمنی در ارمنستان و ساير نقاط دنياست.

                    اين بنياد که اصلا در سال 1910 تاسيس شد توسط زنان به صورت داوطلبانه اداره می شود. شعبه غرب آمريکای اين انجمن در گلندل در کنار سازمان دولتی "خدمات اجتماعی" که اکثر مراجعه کنندگان آن نيز ارامنه هستند قرار داد.

                    برای مهاجران ارمنی سراسر دنيا به غير از تاريخ و زبان مشترک عنصر ديگری وجود دارد که آنها را هر از گاهی گرد هم می آورد: عشق به سرزمين اصلی آباء و اجدادی يعنی جمهوری ارمنستان امروز.

                    ارامنه سه ماه پيش، در روز پنجشنبه 23 نوامبر 2006، با شکستن مرزهای جغرافيايی، طی يک برنامه 12 ساعته تلويزيونی که از گلندل پخش می شد از سراسر جهان گردهم آمدند تا برای بهبود ارمنستان کمک جمع آوری کنند.

                    هدايت آن برنامه را که نهمين در نوع خود بود خانم ماريا مهرانيان، ايرانی الاصل، به عهده داشت.

                    او آن روز به يک روزنامه محلی گفت: "اين شبکه ای خارق العاده از کسانی است که برای 12 ساعت از سراسر جهان گرد هم می آيند... کسانی هستند که ممکن است هرگز همديگر را ملاقات نکنند يا حتی اگر همديگر را می ديدند از هم خوششان نمی آمد؛ اما ايجاد چنين اتحادی خيلی لذت بخش است. ما برای 11 قرن متمادی در پی اتحاد ارمنی ها بوديم."

                    اين صندوق مستقر در گلندل، که در چندين کشور ديگر هم شعبه دارد، از تقريبا 10 ميليون ارمنی سراسر جهان برای کمک به ساخت جاده ها، مدارس، بيمارستان ها و ساير تاسيسات زيربنايی در ارمنستان پول جمع آوری می کند.

                    اين صندوق طی 15 سال فعاليت 160 ميليون دلار جمع آوری کرده است. برگزارکنندگان برنامه 23 نوامبر گفتند قول پرداخت 13 ميليون و 600 هزار دلار به آنها داد شده که 92 درصد آن بلافاصله دريافت شد.

                    دود کباب

                    ارامنه زندگی مسالمت آميزی در جامعه آمريکا دارند اما بخواهی نخواهی اصطکاک فرهنگ ها گاه در مواردی غيرقابل اعتنا پيش می آيد.


                    محله های شمالی گلندل روی تپه های بلند قرار دارد

                    اخيرا قانونی در شهر وضع شد که رستوران ها را از درست کردن کباب در هوای آزاد، چنانکه عادت بسياری از رستوران های ارمنی است، منع می کرد.

                    مردم شهر شکايت داشتند که از بوی کباب که تمام روز شهر را گرفته خسته شده اند. در مقابل صاحبان رستوران ها می گويند که مشتريانشان انتظار بهترين کباب را از آنها دارند بنابراين بايد با زغال درست شود.

                    علت پيروزی ارامنه در انتخابات اخير شورای شهر گلندل هم تا حدودی همين بود، اما اعضای ارمنی 4 رای لازم برای لغو اين دستور را به دست نياوردند و اکنون رستوران های ارمنی به تدريج مجبور به پيروی از آن شده اند.

                    همچنين تنش هايی ميان جوانان ارمنی و اسپانيايی زبان در مدارس شهر گزارش شده است.

                    آقای سوکياسيان، صاحب "شرکت بزرگ فرش" شکايت می کند که برخی جوان های ارمنی اين روزها به جای درس و تحصيل و کار بيشتر در پی دردسر هستند.

                    نسل آينده

                    ارامنه همواره در طول تاريخ رابطه کم و بيش عاشقانه ای با زبانشان داشته اند و عليرغم سکونت طولانی در کشورهای مختلف زبانشان را محفوظ داشته اند و سعی کرده اند آن را به نسل های بعد منتقل کنند.

                    اما گويی برای اولين بار نسل های دوم و سوم ارامنه در آمريکا که در اين کشور به دنيا آمده اند يا بزرگ شده اند ديگر اين دلبستگی را نشان نمی دهند و اين تا حدودی باعث نگرانی نسل های قبلی شده است.

                    آقای سوکياسيان درباره دو فرزند خود که در ايران متولد اما اينجا بزرگ شده اند می گويد: "بخواهی نخواهی جذب می شوند. خيلی وقت ها که با خواهرم و بچه هايش جمع می شويم بچه ها با هم انگليسی صحبت می کنند... بايد به آنها بگوييم که شما يک زبان ديگر هم داريد."

                    در پاسخ به اين سوال که آيا بچه ها حالا کاملا آمريکايی شده اند می گويد: "اگر هم نشده اند در راه هستند."

                    اما چنانچه قوميت های ديگر در آمريکا شهادت می دهند شايد اين سرنوشتی باشد که از آن گريزی نيست.




                    Comment


                    • #55
                      در سال ۱۸۵۰ میلادی، سردبیران دو روزنامه ارمنی زبان که یکی در هند و دیگری در سنگاپور منتشر می شد مناظرات بیشماری پیرامون موضوع مهاجرت ارامنه به استرالیا انجام دادند.
                      سردبیر روزنامه آراراتیان که در کلکته هند منتشر می شد معتقد بود که نه تنها در مهاجرت دسته جمعی ارامنه به استرالیا نفعی وجود ندارد، *بلکه سبب می شود موقعیت اجتماعی ممتازی که ارامنه به سختی آن را در آسیا و خاور دور به دست آورده اند به راحتی از دست برود.

                      از طرف دیگر سردبیر روزنامه ارمنی زبان اوسوم ناپر در سنگاپور عقیده داشت که مهاجرت ارامنه به استرالیا، باعث شکوفایی بیشتر اقتصاد ارامنه میشود و بازارهای جدیدی را برای کالاهای صنعتگران ارمنی زبان فراهم می آورد.

                      آرامیس میرزائیان در کتاب خود به نام "ارمنیان سرگردان" پایان این مناظره را چنین به تصویر می کشد: "اگرچه هر یک از این سردبیران، سخنگوی طیف های مختلف فکری ارامنه بودند اما سرانجام سردبیر روزنامه آراراتیان موفق شد که حرف خود را به کرسی بنشاند و در مناظره برنده شود و مانع از مهاجرت دسته جمعی ارامنه به استرالیا در آن زمان شود. اما وضعیت بدین صورت باقی نماند و ارامنه رفته رفته قدم به استرالیا گذاشتند. زیرا نفع در ماندن نبود بلکه در رفتن بود."

                      ارامنه ایرانی در استرالیا

                      سرزمین ایران، از دیرباز پذیرای اقوام و مهاجرین مختلف جهان بوده است که هر یک تاثیراتی را بر این سرزمین کهن به یادگار گذاشته و متقابلاً از آن تاثیر پذیرفته اند.

                      در این میان، ارامنه نقش برجسته تری در میان دیگرمهاجرین ایرانی داشته اند، زیرا منشا خدمات زیادی برای جامعه ایرانی بوده اند.

                      حضور ارامنه در ایران تاریخی ۴۰۰ ساله دارد و اولین بار شاه عباس اول به آنان اجازه اسکان در ایران را داد. از آن زمان تاکنون،* تصویری که در ذهن ایرانیان از ارامنه نقش بسته حکایت از مردمی سخت کوش، صنعتگر و هنرمند دارد که صداقت در تجارت، خلاقیت در نقاشی ، دلنشینی در موسیقی،* نوآوری در معماری، دلپذیری در صنایع غذایی و صد البته خوشگواری در نوشیدنی های دست ساز از* بارزترین ویژگی آنان است؛ خصلت هایی که ره توشه سفر خود از سرزمین تاریخی ایران به استرالیا نیز بوده است.

                      طبق آمار ، جمعیت ارامنه در سراسر جهان ۹ میلیون نفر برآورد شده *است که حدود ۳ میلیون نفر از ارامنه در موطن اصلی خود جمهوری ارمنستان زندگی می*کنند و پس از آن آمریکا، لبنان و سپس ایران بیشترین تعداد ارامنه در دنیا را دارا هستند.

                      در حال حاضر آمار دقیقی در خصوص تعداد ارامنه یی که در ایران زندگی می کنند، وجود ندارد و برخی کارشناسان تعداد آنان را کمتر از 100هزار نفر برآورد می کنند.

                      اما آنچه که در این میان حائز اهمیت است این است که بسیاری از ارامنه ایران پس از انقلاب به کشورهای دیگر جهان مهاجرت کردند و از میزان آنان بسیار کاسته شده است.

                      ارامنه را می توان یکی از پیشگام ترین ملل مهاجر در استرالیا به شمار آورد. تمراز هوسپیان، سردبیر مجله ارمنی زبان گارون در خصوص تاریخچه حضور ارامنه در استرالیا می گوید: "طبق شواهد و اسناد موجود، *ارامنه از سال ۱۸۵۰ میلادی، بتدریج در استرالیا سکنی گزیدند که مهاجرین اولیه اکثرا از کشورهای ایران، هندوستان،* سنگاپور، *لبنان، *سوریه، *ترکیه بوده اند. پس از کشتار ارامنه در سال ۱۸۹۶ و همچنین آنچه "نسل کشی ارامنه" در سال ۱۹۱۵ خوانده می شود به میزان مهاجرت ارامنه افزوده شد و برآورد میشود که در هنگام جنگ جهانی اول، تعداد ۶۰ تا ۸۰ ارمنی در استرالیا زندگی می کردند و در سال ۱۹۶۰ مهاجرت ارامنه به استرالیا شدت بیشتری یافت."

                      شواهد نشان می دهد که در ۲۵ سال گذشته و به دلیل مسائل اجتماعی و سیاسی که بر دنیا و بویژه بر ایران حاکم بوده است، رشد مهاجرین ارمنی تبار به استرالیا زیاد بوده است. بسیاری از آنان پس از انقلاب اسلامی، استرالیا را به عنوان موطن جدید خود انتخاب کردند.

                      آقای هوسپیان در خصوص تعداد ارامنه استرالیا می گوید: "تعداد کل ارامنه در استرالیا حدود ۴۰ تا ۵۰ هزار نفر تخمین زده می شود که قسمت اعظم آنرا ارامنه ایران تشکیل می دهند. اما باید گفت که ارامنه از ۴۳ کشور دنیا در استرالیا گرد هم آمده اند و در حال حاضر جمعیتی یکپارچه را شامل می شوند که بیشتر این جمعیت در سیدنی و ملبورن زندگی می کنند."

                      زندگی فرهنگی و اجتماعی

                      همچون دیگر اقوام مهاجر،* ارامنه نیز در هر کجای جهان که سکنی گزیده اند، *اولویتهایی را در محل زندگی جدید خود مقدم شمرده و به آن عمل کرده اند.

                      اولویت ها یی که در طول قرون متمادی حافظ و رمز تداوم قومیت و ملیت ارامنه بوده است عبارتند از ساخت کلیسا و مدرسه.

                      طبق این اندیشه و در ۲۵ سال گذشته ارامنه ایرانی تبار مبادرت به ساخت سه مدرسه به نامهای آرشاک و سوفی گالستان ، آلکساندر و سورپ گریگور کرده اند که در مقاطع مختلف تحصیلی کودکستان، دبستان و دبیرستان دانش آموزان در آنجا مشغول به تحصیل هستند
                      اکثر ارامنه ایرانی در استرالیا به صور گوناگون ارتباط و پیوندشان را با زادگاهشان ایران حفظ کرده اند و اکثرا هر چند یکبار به ایران سفر میکنند و با بستگان و دوستان دیرینه خود دیداری تازه می کنند.

                      لوریس ارمنی ایرانی تباری است که ۲۵ سال است به استرالیا مهاجرت کرده . او ۵۴ سال دارد و خاطرات شیرینی از وطن خود ایران دارد. او می گوید: "من شیرین ترین لحظات زندگی ام را در ایران گذراندم. منزل ما در محله نارمک بود و دو سال پیش که به ایران رفتم ، سری به محله قدیمی مان زدم . خاطرات کودکی در ذهنم زنده شد. دلم هوس بازیهای کودکانه و بخصوص هفت سنگ کرده بود . من ایران را از ته قلب دوست دارم و همیشه دلتنگ ایران هستم."

                      تعدادی ارامنه ایرانی تبار در استرالیا توانسته اند به مدارج مختلف ورزشی، هنری و سیاسی نیز دست یابند . به عنوان مثال می توان به ویک دارچینیان اشاره کرد که از ورزشکاران نامی در رشته بوکس است و شهرت جهانی دارد. در زمینه نقاشی نیز میتوان به میلانادا دموند اشاره کرد که آثار وی در جهان شناخته شده هستند و در سیاست نیز خانم گلادین برجیکیان تنها کسی از ارامنه است که توانسته به مجلس استرالیا راه یابد.

                      هوانس پسر ۲۲ ساله ای است که وقتی پنج سال داشت از ایران به استرالیا آمد. وقتی پدر هوانس قبل از آغاز مسابقه فوتبال ایران و استرالیا از او پرسیده بود که دوست دارد چه کشوری برنده نهایی مسابقه شود، هوانس در پاسخ به سئوال پدرش مردد بود. هوانس می گوید: "واقعاً نمی دانستم که چه جوابی به پدرم باید می دادم. وقتی بازی شروع شد و ایران ۲ گل عقب افتاد در غم عمیقی فرو رفتم. برایم احساس عجیبی بود. من قسمت اعظم زندگی ام را در استرالیا گذرانده بودم و در تمامی این دوران هیچگاه به ایران بر نگشته بودم و بهمین خاطر دلیل ناراحتیم را درک نمی کردم. فکر نمی کردم که ایران موفق به زدن گل شود. اما ، پس از اینکه گل اول ایران زده شد،* بسیار احساس شادمانی کردم و پس از گل تساوی ایران ، آنچنان جیغ بلندی کشیدم که خانواده ام هاج و واج فقط به من نگاه میکردند. وقتی بازی تمام شد و ایران به عنوان تیم برنده راهی جام جهانی شد ، بسیار خوشحال بودم و احساس خوبی داشتم."

                      پدر هوانس ، وقتی دلیل شادمانی پسرش را پس از پایان مسابقه فوتبال پرسیده بود، پاسخ هوانس این بود: "در رگهای من خون ایرانی جریان داشت و من به این حقیقت ، پس از پایان مسابقه فوتبال ایران و استرالیا پی بردم."




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                      • #56
                        Iran, the favorite country of Armenians

                        Armenian Ambassador to Tehran Karen Nazarian said in Isfahan on Sunday that Iran is the favorite country of the Armenians. In a meeting with Isfahan Mayor Morteza Saqaian-nejad, he reiterated interest of his fellow countrymen in Iranian culture.

                        He said that the memorial ceremony marking the martyrdom of Armenians held in Isfahan was warmly welcomed by the people of Armenia and accounts for further popularity of Iranians in this country.

                        "Iran-Armenia relations over the past centuries have brought their nations closer to each other citing the monuments with Iranian-Islamic architecture observed in Armenia," he added.

                        The Armenian diplomat said that the support of Iranian government and people for his country, the presence of Armenian community in the provincial capital of Isfahan and the sister cities of Isfahan and Yerevan are the factors effective for strengthening bilateral ties.

                        For his part, Saqaian-nejad said that special attention is paid by the municipality of Isfahan to reconstruction of Julfa neighborhood in this central city which is resided by the Iranian Armenians.

                        Meanwhile, he called for further expansion of relations between the two countries.

                        "Inauguration of Iran-Armenia gas pipeline shows the deep ties between the two states," he added.

                        Saqaian-nejad said that cooperation between the two sides are expected to increase in educational, trade and tourism sectors.



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                        • #57
                          The earliest Christian accounts of the introduction of Christianity into Armenia date from the 1st century.

                          The Church teaches that it was first preached by two Apostles of Jesus, St. Bartholomew and St. Jude. The Armenian Apostolic Church claims to been in existence since the days of the apostles and therefore would be one of the oldest denominations of Christianity. Armenia was the first country to adopt Christianity as its official religion, when St. Gregory the Illuminator converted Tiridates III (the King of Armenia) and members of his court , traditionally dated to 301 (after Mikayel Chamchian 1784). The Church teaches that St. Gregory was imprisoned by Tiridates in an underground pit, called Khor Virab, for 13 years, after which he healed the King of an incurable disease, whereupon Tiridates accepted Christianity[citation needed].

                          The official name of the church is the "Armenian Orthodox Apostolic Church"; "Gregorian Church" is not preferred by the church, as they view the Apostles Thaddeus and Bartholomew as the founders, and St. Gregory as merely the first official head of the church.

                          Christianity was strengthened in Armenia by the translation of the Bible into the Armenian language by the Armenian theologian, monk and scholar Saint Mesrop Mashtots.


                          Historically, the Armenian church has been labeled monophysite because it (just as the Coptic Orthodox Church) rejected the decisions of the Council of Chalcedon, which condemned monophysitism. The Armenian Church officially severed ties with the West in 554, during the second Council of Dvin where the dyophysite formula of the Council of Chalcedon was rejected.

                          However, the Armenian Orthodox Church argues that this is a wrong description of its position, as it considers Monophysitism, as taught by Eutyches and condemned at Chalcedon, a heresy and only disagrees with the formula defined by that council. The Armenian church instead adheres to the doctrine defined by Cyril of Alexandria, considered as a saint by the Chalcedonian churches as well, who described Christ as being of one incarnate nature, where both divine and human nature are united. To distinguish this from Eutychian and other versions of Monophysitism this position is called miaphysitism.

                          In recent times, both Chalcedonian and anti-Chalcedonian churches have developed a deeper understanding for each other's positions, recognizing the substantial agreement while maintaining their respective theological language. Hence, the Monophysite label is avoided to describe the Armenians' or Copts' belief regarding the Nature of Christ.

                          The Armenian Apostolic Church is headed by a Catholicos (the plural is Catholicoi). (The Armenian Apostolic Church should not be confused, however, with the Armenian Catholic Church, which is an Eastern Catholic church in communion with the See of Rome (whose bishop is the Pope). At present, the Catholicos of All Armenians is his Holiness Karekin II (sometimes spelled as Garegin), who resides in the city of Echmiadzin, west of Yerevan. A second Catholicos, His Holiness Aram I Catholicos of Cilicia, who resides in Antilyas in Lebanon, leads churches belonging to the Holy See of Cilicia. The division stems from frequent relocations of the Church headquarters under Ottoman Rule and was further reinforced during the period in which Armenia was part of the Soviet Union.

                          However, the Catholicos of All Armenians claims theoretical sovereignty over the Catholicos of Cilicia. The Armenian Apostolic Church is one of a few denominations in the world to have a democratic system; the people decide if they want to keep priests in their churches and may ask for different ones, as do some other connectional ecclesial structures, such as Presbyterians.



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                          • #58
                            Christian pilgrimage holds strong in Islamic Iran

                            CHALDORAN, Iran (AFP) - The tents of thousands of pilgrims dot the hillside, the air is heavy with the scent of incense and the sounds of the church bell toll across the valley.


                            This is the Armenian Christian pilgrimage marking the feast of the 1st century missionary St Thaddeus, deep in the northwestern mountains of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

                            Every summer for the past half century, thousands of Armenian pilgrims from Iran and beyond have descended on the remote Qareh Kelisa (black church) for three days of worship and relaxation with fellow Armenians.

                            It may seem remarkable that such a tradition holds strong in one of the world's most strictly Islamic countries, but Iran is home to hundreds of thousands of Armenians and a string of historically important churches.

                            "This is a gathering point which brings people together in one place. It creates solidarity among Armenians from both inside and outside Iran and is the most important date in the calendar," said Hayk Norouzian, a handicrafts dealer from Tehran.

                            This year up to 4,000 pilgrims, mainly from Iran, neighbouring Armenia and Arab countries with important Armenian populations like Lebanon and Syria have pitched their tents on the hillside to mark the event.

                            They filled the church -- Iran's most important Christian monument which dates back to early decades of the faith -- for the climax of the weekend, a church service attended by the patriarchs of Tehran and Tabriz.

                            "The most important thing is that in a Muslim nation we have preserved this church," said Ani, 32, a female computer scientist and choir singer.

                            "In Turkey, some Armenian churches have been ruined. It is a point of pride that in this country we have this church. The government of Iran values it and appreciates it," she said.

                            The church, built on the site of St Thaddeus' grave after he was slain by a pagan king, has withstood over one-and-a-half millennia of wars and earthquakes to dominate this landscape.

                            Its distinctively Armenian pyramidal cupolas and mighty defensive walls perch on a mountain ridge in the north of Iran's West Azarbaijan province, just 25 kilometres (15 miles) from the border with Turkey.

                            But the pilgrimage is not only about religion -- it also offers Armenians separated by national borders the chance to come together and celebrate their culture without any interference.

                            It's only 9:00 am but the early morning chatter of the pilgrims emerging from their tents is joined by joyful sounds of an accordion which has struck up accompanied by a drum.

                            Arms aloft, two other men surround the musicians in a traditional dance, joined immediately by two women who kick their legs and twirl their hands in time to the music.

                            The authorities allow the Armenians considerable freedom in celebrating the ritual and the Islamic dress rules that everyone normally has to obey in public in Iran are relaxed.

                            Women walk around in T-shirts without the headscarves that are obligatory everywhere else in Iran, although they cover their heads in church.

                            "We are free here to make our prayers and do as we wish. The government organisations help us to feel really free. Nobody bothers us here," said Gevork Vartanian, one of two MPs who represent Iranian Armenians in parliament.

                            It is not possible for Muslims to attend the pilgrimage without a special reason. Checks are carried out by Armenian staff on the only road into the church where local government officials are also in attendance.

                            Beyond that line, visitors enter, for that weekend at least, a distinctively Armenian Christian world.

                            "People come here from all over the world for this ceremony. We welcome all Christian people," said Vartanian.

                            "The authorities carry out this work of separation in order for us to be free," he added.

                            The campers play Armenian "rabiz" music and have brought copious amounts of food to indulge in one of the most Armenian of passions -- the "khorovats" or open-air barbecue.

                            "What I like is that our youth comes here regardless of whether their main purpose is religious, historical or social. People get to know one another here," said Rene Ahour, a freelance filmmaker from Tehran.

                            Iran has always emphasised it gives its Christian, Jewish and Zoroastrian religious minorities full freedom of worship, although large numbers from these communities have emigrated abroad in recent years.

                            The presence of Armenians in northern Iran dates back thousands of years and Persian Shah Abbas famously brought hundreds of Armenian craftsmen to his imperial capital of Isfahan in the 17th century.

                            The entrance to Qareh Kelisa is adorned with pictures of two Armenian patriarchs flanking images of Iran's modern leaders -- President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, supreme leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei and late revolutionary leader Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini.

                            But an official message pinned to the church from the Lebanon-based head of the Armenian church, Catholicos of Cilicia Aram I, emphasised the foremost importance of the ritual.

                            "Our religion and our culture are interwoven together and must be preserved. By being Christian, Armenians have preserved their strength throughout history. This pilgrimage should be looked upon as a duty to keep Armenian unity."



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                            • #59
                              زیارت مذهبی ارامنه ایران در قره کلیسا در منطقه چالدران

                              بیش از سه هزار تن از ارامنه ایران و سایر کشورها، تابستان هر سال در منطقه دره چالدران در شمال غرب ایران جمع می شوند تا در کلیسای تادئوس مقدس یا قره کلیسا نیایش کنند.
                              تادئوس مقدس حدود یکصد سال پس از میلاد حضرت مسیح به دست مشرکان کشته شد و این کلیسا در محل شهادت او ساخته شده است.

                              زیارت مذهبی ارامنه به قره کلیسا، که توسط دولت ایران در فهرست میراث ملل یونسکو به ثبت رسیده، سه روز طول می کشد و آنها در طول این مدت در چادرهایی که اطراف کلیسا برپا داشته اند اقامت می کنند.

                              امسال، بمانند سالهای گذشته، سپوه سرکیسیان اسقف اعظم ارامنه تهران و شمال ایران در مراسم نیایش شرکت داشت.


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                              • #60
                                Nakhchivan khanate (Naxçıvan xanlığı in Azerbaijani) was a feudal state that existed in the territory of the present-day Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic.

                                The khanate was ruled by local Azeri-Turkic Kangarli dynasty and the population of the khanate was mostly Muslim (Azeri-Turkic and Kurdish). It was founded in 1747 by Haydar Quli Khan, who declared himself the ruler of Nakhchivan after the death of Nadir Shah Afshar, the ruler of Persia. During the rule of Panah khan of Karabakh khanate Nakhchivan was the dependency of Karabakh.

                                During Russo-Persian War of 1804-1813, Russian forces under general Gudovich briefly occupied Nakhchivan in 1808, but as a result of Treaty of Gulistan it passed into Persian hands. After the second Russo-Persian War of 1826-1828 and the Treaty of Turkmenchay, Nakhchivan khanate passed into Russian possession in 1828. The ruler of the khanate Ehsan khan supported Russia in the war against Persia and was conferred by the Russian authorities the rank of major-general of the Russian army and the title of campaign ataman of Kangarly militia.

                                With the onset of Russian rule, the tsarist authorities encouraged massive resettlement of Armenians from Persia and Turkey to Nakhchivan and other areas of the Caucasus. Special clauses of the Turkmenchay and Adrianople treaties allowed for this. According to Russian envoy to Persia Alexandr Griboyedov, the number of Armenian population resettled to Nakhchivan in 1828 exceeded all reasonable limits, and this resulted in tensions between the newcomers and local mainly Muslim population. Griboyedov requested Russian army commander count Ivan Paskevich to give orders on resettlement of some of the arriving people further to the region of Daralagoz to quiet the tensions.

                                Nakhchivan khanate was dissolved in 1828, its territory was merged with the territory of the Erivan khanate, which in 1840 was renamed the Erivan province of the Russian Empire. Nakhchivan became the Nakhchivan uyezd of the province.

                                After dissolution of the khanate the khans of Nakhchivan remained the most influential power and de-facto rulers of the region. Nakhchivan khans became known in the Russian empire by the surname of Khan Nakhchivanski and the men of the family traditionally chose military service. Six Khans Nakhchivanski became generals in Russian tsarist, Soviet and Iranian armies. Sons of Ehsan khan Ismail khan and Kalbali khan were both awarded orders of Saint-George of IV degree for the services in battle and were generals in Russian army. Son of Kalbali khan Huseyn Khan Nakhchivanski was a prominent Russian military commander and adjutant general of the Russian Emperor, and his nephews Jamshid and Kalbali were generals in Soviet and Iranian armies respectively.



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